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Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug; 98(2):594-619.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Studies of whole grain and chronic disease have often included bran-enriched foods and other ingredients that do not meet the current definition of whole grains. Therefore, we assessed the literature to test whether whole grains alone had benefits on these diseases.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to assess the contribution of bran or cereal fiber on the impact of whole grains on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and body weight measures, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in human studies as the basis for establishing an American Society for Nutrition (ASN) position on this subject.

DESIGN

We performed a comprehensive PubMed search of human studies published from 1965 to December 2010.

RESULTS

Most whole-grain studies included mixtures of whole grains and foods with ≥25% bran. Prospective studies consistently showed a reduced risk of T2D with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran. For body weight, a limited number of prospective studies on cereal fiber and whole grains reported small but significant reductions in weight gain. For CVD, studies found reduced risk with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran.

CONCLUSIONS

The ASN position, based on the current state of the science, is that consumption of foods rich in cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran is modestly associated with a reduced risk of obesity, T2D, and CVD. The data for whole grains alone are limited primarily because of varying definitions among epidemiologic studies of what, and how much, was included in that food category.

Authors+Show Affiliations

NutraSource, Clarksville, MD, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23803885

Citation

Cho, Susan S., et al. "Consumption of Cereal Fiber, Mixtures of Whole Grains and Bran, and Whole Grains and Risk Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 98, no. 2, 2013, pp. 594-619.
Cho SS, Qi L, Fahey GC, et al. Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(2):594-619.
Cho, S. S., Qi, L., Fahey, G. C., & Klurfeld, D. M. (2013). Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(2), 594-619. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.067629
Cho SS, et al. Consumption of Cereal Fiber, Mixtures of Whole Grains and Bran, and Whole Grains and Risk Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(2):594-619. PubMed PMID: 23803885.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. AU - Cho,Susan S, AU - Qi,Lu, AU - Fahey,George C,Jr AU - Klurfeld,David M, Y1 - 2013/06/26/ PY - 2013/6/28/entrez PY - 2013/6/28/pubmed PY - 2013/9/24/medline SP - 594 EP - 619 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 98 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Studies of whole grain and chronic disease have often included bran-enriched foods and other ingredients that do not meet the current definition of whole grains. Therefore, we assessed the literature to test whether whole grains alone had benefits on these diseases. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the contribution of bran or cereal fiber on the impact of whole grains on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and body weight measures, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in human studies as the basis for establishing an American Society for Nutrition (ASN) position on this subject. DESIGN: We performed a comprehensive PubMed search of human studies published from 1965 to December 2010. RESULTS: Most whole-grain studies included mixtures of whole grains and foods with ≥25% bran. Prospective studies consistently showed a reduced risk of T2D with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran. For body weight, a limited number of prospective studies on cereal fiber and whole grains reported small but significant reductions in weight gain. For CVD, studies found reduced risk with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran. CONCLUSIONS: The ASN position, based on the current state of the science, is that consumption of foods rich in cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran is modestly associated with a reduced risk of obesity, T2D, and CVD. The data for whole grains alone are limited primarily because of varying definitions among epidemiologic studies of what, and how much, was included in that food category. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23803885/Consumption_of_cereal_fiber_mixtures_of_whole_grains_and_bran_and_whole_grains_and_risk_reduction_in_type_2_diabetes_obesity_and_cardiovascular_disease_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.067629 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -