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Immunomodulating effects of environmentally realistic copper concentrations in Mytilus edulis adapted to naturally low salinities.
Aquat Toxicol. 2013 Sep 15; 140-141:185-95.AT

Abstract

The monitoring of organisms' health conditions by the assessment of their immunocompetence may serve as an important criterion for the achievement of the Good Environmental Status (GES) as defined in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU). In this context, the complex role of natural environmental stressors, e.g. salinity, and interfering or superimposing effects of anthropogenic chemicals, should be carefully considered, especially in scenarios of low to moderate contamination. Organisms from the Baltic Sea have adapted to the ambient salinity regime, however energetically costly osmoregulating processes may have an impact on the capability to respond to additional stress such as contamination. The assessment of multiple stressors, encompassing natural and anthropogenic factors, influencing an organisms' health was the main aim of the present study. Immune responses of Mytilus edulis, collected and kept at natural salinities of 12‰ (LS) and 20‰ (MS), respectively, were compared after short-term exposure (1, 7 and 13 days) to low copper concentrations (5, 9 and 16 μg/L Cu). A significant interaction of salinity and copper exposure was observed in copper accumulation. LS mussels accumulated markedly more copper than MS mussels. No combined effects were detected in cellular responses. Bacterial clearance was mostly achieved by phagocytosis, as revealed by a strong positive correlation between bacterial counts and phagocytic activity, which was particularly pronounced in LS mussels. MS mussels, on the other hand, seemingly accomplished bacterial clearance by employing additional humoral factors (16 μg/L Cu). The greatest separating factor in the PCA biplot between LS and MS mussels was the proportion of granulocytes and hyalinocytes while functional parameters (phagocytic activity and bacterial clearance) were hardly affected by salinity, but rather by copper exposure. In conclusion, immune responses of the blue mussel may be suitable and sensitive biomarkers for the assessment of ecosystem health in brackish waters (10-20‰S).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. nicole.hoeher@awi.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23811023

Citation

Höher, Nicole, et al. "Immunomodulating Effects of Environmentally Realistic Copper Concentrations in Mytilus Edulis Adapted to Naturally Low Salinities." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 140-141, 2013, pp. 185-95.
Höher N, Regoli F, Dissanayake A, et al. Immunomodulating effects of environmentally realistic copper concentrations in Mytilus edulis adapted to naturally low salinities. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;140-141:185-95.
Höher, N., Regoli, F., Dissanayake, A., Nagel, M., Kriews, M., Köhler, A., & Broeg, K. (2013). Immunomodulating effects of environmentally realistic copper concentrations in Mytilus edulis adapted to naturally low salinities. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 140-141, 185-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.06.001
Höher N, et al. Immunomodulating Effects of Environmentally Realistic Copper Concentrations in Mytilus Edulis Adapted to Naturally Low Salinities. Aquat Toxicol. 2013 Sep 15;140-141:185-95. PubMed PMID: 23811023.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Immunomodulating effects of environmentally realistic copper concentrations in Mytilus edulis adapted to naturally low salinities. AU - Höher,Nicole, AU - Regoli,Francesco, AU - Dissanayake,Awantha, AU - Nagel,Matthias, AU - Kriews,Michael, AU - Köhler,Angela, AU - Broeg,Katja, Y1 - 2013/06/12/ PY - 2013/02/23/received PY - 2013/06/03/revised PY - 2013/06/04/accepted PY - 2013/7/2/entrez PY - 2013/7/3/pubmed PY - 2014/2/28/medline KW - Baltic Sea KW - Brackish waters KW - Copper KW - Immune responses KW - Multiple stressors KW - Mytilus KW - Salinity SP - 185 EP - 95 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat Toxicol VL - 140-141 N2 - The monitoring of organisms' health conditions by the assessment of their immunocompetence may serve as an important criterion for the achievement of the Good Environmental Status (GES) as defined in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU). In this context, the complex role of natural environmental stressors, e.g. salinity, and interfering or superimposing effects of anthropogenic chemicals, should be carefully considered, especially in scenarios of low to moderate contamination. Organisms from the Baltic Sea have adapted to the ambient salinity regime, however energetically costly osmoregulating processes may have an impact on the capability to respond to additional stress such as contamination. The assessment of multiple stressors, encompassing natural and anthropogenic factors, influencing an organisms' health was the main aim of the present study. Immune responses of Mytilus edulis, collected and kept at natural salinities of 12‰ (LS) and 20‰ (MS), respectively, were compared after short-term exposure (1, 7 and 13 days) to low copper concentrations (5, 9 and 16 μg/L Cu). A significant interaction of salinity and copper exposure was observed in copper accumulation. LS mussels accumulated markedly more copper than MS mussels. No combined effects were detected in cellular responses. Bacterial clearance was mostly achieved by phagocytosis, as revealed by a strong positive correlation between bacterial counts and phagocytic activity, which was particularly pronounced in LS mussels. MS mussels, on the other hand, seemingly accomplished bacterial clearance by employing additional humoral factors (16 μg/L Cu). The greatest separating factor in the PCA biplot between LS and MS mussels was the proportion of granulocytes and hyalinocytes while functional parameters (phagocytic activity and bacterial clearance) were hardly affected by salinity, but rather by copper exposure. In conclusion, immune responses of the blue mussel may be suitable and sensitive biomarkers for the assessment of ecosystem health in brackish waters (10-20‰S). SN - 1879-1514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23811023/Immunomodulating_effects_of_environmentally_realistic_copper_concentrations_in_Mytilus_edulis_adapted_to_naturally_low_salinities_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(13)00144-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -