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Cryptococcosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.
J Feline Med Surg. 2013 Jul; 15(7):611-8.JF

Abstract

OVERVIEW

Cryptococcosis is worldwide the most common systemic fungal disease in cats; it is caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans- Cryptococcus gattii species complex, which includes eight genotypes and some subtypes (strains) with varying geographical distribution, pathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility. Cats acquire the infection from a contaminated environment. The prognosis is favourable in most cases, provided a diagnosis is obtained sufficiently early and prolonged treatment is maintained.

INFECTION

Basidiospores are the infectious propagules of Cryptococcus species as they penetrate the respiratory system and induce primary infection. Asymptomatic colonisation of the respiratory tract is more common than clinical disease. Avian guanos, particularly pigeon droppings, offer favourable conditions for the reproduction of C neoformans. Both Cryptococcus species are associated with decaying vegetation.

DISEASE SIGNS

Cryptococcosis caused by C neoformans or C gattii is indistinguishable clinically. The disease can present in nasal, central nervous system (which can derive from the nasal form or occur independently), cutaneous and systemic forms.

DIAGNOSIS

An easy and reliable test for cryptococcosis diagnosis is antigen detection in body fluids. Only isolation and polymerase chain reaction allow identification of the species genotype.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole have all been used to treat cats. Surgical excision of any nodules in the skin, nasal or oral mucosa assists recovery. Continued treatment is recommended until the antigen test is negative.

PREVENTION

Efficient preventive measures have not been demonstrated. Vaccines are not available.

Authors+Show Affiliations

European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases. pennipet@unime.itNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23813826

Citation

Pennisi, Maria Grazia, et al. "Cryptococcosis in Cats: ABCD Guidelines On Prevention and Management." Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 15, no. 7, 2013, pp. 611-8.
Pennisi MG, Hartmann K, Lloret A, et al. Cryptococcosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(7):611-8.
Pennisi, M. G., Hartmann, K., Lloret, A., Ferrer, L., Addie, D., Belák, S., Boucraut-Baralon, C., Egberink, H., Frymus, T., Gruffydd-Jones, T., Hosie, M. J., Lutz, H., Marsilio, F., Möstl, K., Radford, A. D., Thiry, E., Truyen, U., & Horzinek, M. C. (2013). Cryptococcosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 15(7), 611-8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X13489224
Pennisi MG, et al. Cryptococcosis in Cats: ABCD Guidelines On Prevention and Management. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(7):611-8. PubMed PMID: 23813826.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cryptococcosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. AU - Pennisi,Maria Grazia, AU - Hartmann,Katrin, AU - Lloret,Albert, AU - Ferrer,Lluis, AU - Addie,Diane, AU - Belák,Sándor, AU - Boucraut-Baralon,Corine, AU - Egberink,Herman, AU - Frymus,Tadeusz, AU - Gruffydd-Jones,Tim, AU - Hosie,Margaret J, AU - Lutz,Hans, AU - Marsilio,Fulvio, AU - Möstl,Karin, AU - Radford,Alan D, AU - Thiry,Etienne, AU - Truyen,Uwe, AU - Horzinek,Marian C, PY - 2013/7/2/entrez PY - 2013/7/3/pubmed PY - 2014/1/31/medline SP - 611 EP - 8 JF - Journal of feline medicine and surgery JO - J Feline Med Surg VL - 15 IS - 7 N2 - OVERVIEW: Cryptococcosis is worldwide the most common systemic fungal disease in cats; it is caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans- Cryptococcus gattii species complex, which includes eight genotypes and some subtypes (strains) with varying geographical distribution, pathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility. Cats acquire the infection from a contaminated environment. The prognosis is favourable in most cases, provided a diagnosis is obtained sufficiently early and prolonged treatment is maintained. INFECTION: Basidiospores are the infectious propagules of Cryptococcus species as they penetrate the respiratory system and induce primary infection. Asymptomatic colonisation of the respiratory tract is more common than clinical disease. Avian guanos, particularly pigeon droppings, offer favourable conditions for the reproduction of C neoformans. Both Cryptococcus species are associated with decaying vegetation. DISEASE SIGNS: Cryptococcosis caused by C neoformans or C gattii is indistinguishable clinically. The disease can present in nasal, central nervous system (which can derive from the nasal form or occur independently), cutaneous and systemic forms. DIAGNOSIS: An easy and reliable test for cryptococcosis diagnosis is antigen detection in body fluids. Only isolation and polymerase chain reaction allow identification of the species genotype. DISEASE MANAGEMENT: Amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole have all been used to treat cats. Surgical excision of any nodules in the skin, nasal or oral mucosa assists recovery. Continued treatment is recommended until the antigen test is negative. PREVENTION: Efficient preventive measures have not been demonstrated. Vaccines are not available. SN - 1532-2750 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23813826/Cryptococcosis_in_cats:_ABCD_guidelines_on_prevention_and_management_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1098612X13489224?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -