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Rare systemic mycoses in cats: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.
J Feline Med Surg. 2013 Jul; 15(7):624-7.JF

Abstract

OVERVIEW

Rare fungal infections, including those hitherto not reported in Europe, may occur sporadically in non-endemic areas, or imported cases may be seen.

INFECTIONS

Blastomycosis is mainly seen in North America; no cases have been reported in Europe. Histoplasmosis, which is endemic in the eastern US, Central and South America, has been diagnosed in Japan and Europe. Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in the southwestern US, Central and South America; only one imported case has been reported in Europe. The primary mode of transmission is inhalation of conidia or spores from the environment.

DISEASE SIGNS

Most feline cases present with a combination of clinical signs (mainly respiratory, along with skin, eye, central nervous system and bone). Lymphadenopathy and systemic signs may be present.

DIAGNOSIS

Diagnosis is based on fungal detection by cytology and/or histology. Commercial laboratories do not routinely perform fungal culture. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, which is more difficult, may be supported by antibody detection.

TREATMENT

Treatment consists of prolonged systemic antifungal therapy, with itraconazole as the first-choice agent for histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. The prognosis is good if owner compliance is adequate and adverse drug effects do not occur.

PREVENTION

Cat owners travelling to endemic areas should be warned about these diseases. There is no zoonotic risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases. Albert.LLoret@uab.catNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23813828

Citation

Lloret, Albert, et al. "Rare Systemic Mycoses in Cats: Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis: ABCD Guidelines On Prevention and Management." Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 15, no. 7, 2013, pp. 624-7.
Lloret A, Hartmann K, Pennisi MG, et al. Rare systemic mycoses in cats: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(7):624-7.
Lloret, A., Hartmann, K., Pennisi, M. G., Ferrer, L., Addie, D., Belák, S., Boucraut-Baralon, C., Egberink, H., Frymus, T., Gruffydd-Jones, T., Hosie, M. J., Lutz, H., Marsilio, F., Möstl, K., Radford, A. D., Thiry, E., Truyen, U., & Horzinek, M. C. (2013). Rare systemic mycoses in cats: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 15(7), 624-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X13489226
Lloret A, et al. Rare Systemic Mycoses in Cats: Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis: ABCD Guidelines On Prevention and Management. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(7):624-7. PubMed PMID: 23813828.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rare systemic mycoses in cats: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. AU - Lloret,Albert, AU - Hartmann,Katrin, AU - Pennisi,Maria Grazia, AU - Ferrer,Lluis, AU - Addie,Diane, AU - Belák,Sándor, AU - Boucraut-Baralon,Corine, AU - Egberink,Herman, AU - Frymus,Tadeusz, AU - Gruffydd-Jones,Tim, AU - Hosie,Margaret J, AU - Lutz,Hans, AU - Marsilio,Fulvio, AU - Möstl,Karin, AU - Radford,Alan D, AU - Thiry,Etienne, AU - Truyen,Uwe, AU - Horzinek,Marian C, PY - 2013/7/2/entrez PY - 2013/7/3/pubmed PY - 2014/1/31/medline SP - 624 EP - 7 JF - Journal of feline medicine and surgery JO - J Feline Med Surg VL - 15 IS - 7 N2 - OVERVIEW: Rare fungal infections, including those hitherto not reported in Europe, may occur sporadically in non-endemic areas, or imported cases may be seen. INFECTIONS: Blastomycosis is mainly seen in North America; no cases have been reported in Europe. Histoplasmosis, which is endemic in the eastern US, Central and South America, has been diagnosed in Japan and Europe. Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in the southwestern US, Central and South America; only one imported case has been reported in Europe. The primary mode of transmission is inhalation of conidia or spores from the environment. DISEASE SIGNS: Most feline cases present with a combination of clinical signs (mainly respiratory, along with skin, eye, central nervous system and bone). Lymphadenopathy and systemic signs may be present. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on fungal detection by cytology and/or histology. Commercial laboratories do not routinely perform fungal culture. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, which is more difficult, may be supported by antibody detection. TREATMENT: Treatment consists of prolonged systemic antifungal therapy, with itraconazole as the first-choice agent for histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. The prognosis is good if owner compliance is adequate and adverse drug effects do not occur. PREVENTION: Cat owners travelling to endemic areas should be warned about these diseases. There is no zoonotic risk. SN - 1532-2750 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23813828/Rare_systemic_mycoses_in_cats:_blastomycosis_histoplasmosis_and_coccidioidomycosis:_ABCD_guidelines_on_prevention_and_management_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1098612X13489226?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -