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The bee tree of life: a supermatrix approach to apoid phylogeny and biogeography.
BMC Evol Biol. 2013 Jul 03; 13:138.BE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Bees are the primary pollinators of angiosperms throughout the world. There are more than 16,000 described species, with broad variation in life history traits such as nesting habitat, diet, and social behavior. Despite their importance as pollinators, the evolution of bee biodiversity is understudied: relationships among the seven families of bees remain controversial, and no empirical global-level reconstruction of historical biogeography has been attempted. Morphological studies have generally suggested that the phylogeny of bees is rooted near the family Colletidae, whereas many molecular studies have suggested a root node near (or within) Melittidae. Previous molecular studies have focused on a relatively small sample of taxa (~150 species) and genes (seven at most). Public databases contain an enormous amount of DNA sequence data that has not been comprehensively analysed in the context of bee evolution.

RESULTS

We downloaded, aligned, concatenated, and analysed all available protein-coding nuclear gene DNA sequence data in GenBank as of October, 2011. Our matrix consists of 20 genes, with over 17,000 aligned nucleotide sites, for over 1,300 bee and apoid wasp species, representing over two-thirds of bee genera. Whereas the matrix is large in terms of number of genes and taxa, there is a significant amount of missing data: only ~15% of the matrix is populated with data. The placement of the root as well as relationships between Andrenidae and other bee families remain ambiguous, as several alternative maximum-likelihood estimates fall within the statistically credible set. However, we recover strong bootstrap support for relationships among many families and for their monophyly. Ancestral geographic range reconstruction suggests a likely origin of bees in the southern hemisphere, with Melittidae ancestrally located within Africa, and Halictidae, Colletidae, and Apidae within the New World.

CONCLUSIONS

Our study affirms the monophyly of each bee family, sister-taxa relationships between Apidae and Megachilidae (the 'long-tongued bees'), between Colletidae and Stenotritidae, and between Colletidae + Stenotritidae and Halictidae. Our analyses reject a Colletidae-basal hypothesis for family-level relationships and instead support Melittidae as sister to the remaining bees. Southern hemisphere vicariance likely played an important role in early diversification within many bee families.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. shannon.hedtke@gmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23822725

Citation

Hedtke, Shannon M., et al. "The Bee Tree of Life: a Supermatrix Approach to Apoid Phylogeny and Biogeography." BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 13, 2013, p. 138.
Hedtke SM, Patiny S, Danforth BN. The bee tree of life: a supermatrix approach to apoid phylogeny and biogeography. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:138.
Hedtke, S. M., Patiny, S., & Danforth, B. N. (2013). The bee tree of life: a supermatrix approach to apoid phylogeny and biogeography. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13, 138. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-138
Hedtke SM, Patiny S, Danforth BN. The Bee Tree of Life: a Supermatrix Approach to Apoid Phylogeny and Biogeography. BMC Evol Biol. 2013 Jul 3;13:138. PubMed PMID: 23822725.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The bee tree of life: a supermatrix approach to apoid phylogeny and biogeography. AU - Hedtke,Shannon M, AU - Patiny,Sébastien, AU - Danforth,Bryan N, Y1 - 2013/07/03/ PY - 2013/04/08/received PY - 2013/06/27/accepted PY - 2013/7/5/entrez PY - 2013/7/5/pubmed PY - 2014/6/15/medline SP - 138 EP - 138 JF - BMC evolutionary biology JO - BMC Evol Biol VL - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: Bees are the primary pollinators of angiosperms throughout the world. There are more than 16,000 described species, with broad variation in life history traits such as nesting habitat, diet, and social behavior. Despite their importance as pollinators, the evolution of bee biodiversity is understudied: relationships among the seven families of bees remain controversial, and no empirical global-level reconstruction of historical biogeography has been attempted. Morphological studies have generally suggested that the phylogeny of bees is rooted near the family Colletidae, whereas many molecular studies have suggested a root node near (or within) Melittidae. Previous molecular studies have focused on a relatively small sample of taxa (~150 species) and genes (seven at most). Public databases contain an enormous amount of DNA sequence data that has not been comprehensively analysed in the context of bee evolution. RESULTS: We downloaded, aligned, concatenated, and analysed all available protein-coding nuclear gene DNA sequence data in GenBank as of October, 2011. Our matrix consists of 20 genes, with over 17,000 aligned nucleotide sites, for over 1,300 bee and apoid wasp species, representing over two-thirds of bee genera. Whereas the matrix is large in terms of number of genes and taxa, there is a significant amount of missing data: only ~15% of the matrix is populated with data. The placement of the root as well as relationships between Andrenidae and other bee families remain ambiguous, as several alternative maximum-likelihood estimates fall within the statistically credible set. However, we recover strong bootstrap support for relationships among many families and for their monophyly. Ancestral geographic range reconstruction suggests a likely origin of bees in the southern hemisphere, with Melittidae ancestrally located within Africa, and Halictidae, Colletidae, and Apidae within the New World. CONCLUSIONS: Our study affirms the monophyly of each bee family, sister-taxa relationships between Apidae and Megachilidae (the 'long-tongued bees'), between Colletidae and Stenotritidae, and between Colletidae + Stenotritidae and Halictidae. Our analyses reject a Colletidae-basal hypothesis for family-level relationships and instead support Melittidae as sister to the remaining bees. Southern hemisphere vicariance likely played an important role in early diversification within many bee families. SN - 1471-2148 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23822725/The_bee_tree_of_life:_a_supermatrix_approach_to_apoid_phylogeny_and_biogeography_ L2 - https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-13-138 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -