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Wastewater drainage system as an occult reservoir in a protracted clonal outbreak due to metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Nov; 19(11):E490-8.CM

Abstract

We describe the epidemiology of a protracted nosocomial clonal outbreak due to multidrug-resistant IMP-8 producing Klebsiella oxytoca (MDRKO) that was finally eradicated by removing an environmental reservoir. The outbreak occurred in the ICU of a Spanish hospital from March 2009 to November 2011 and evolved over four waves. Forty-two patients were affected. First basic (active surveillance, contact precautions and reinforcement of surface cleaning) and later additional control measures (nurse cohorting and establishment of a minimum patient/nurse ratio) were implemented. Screening of ICU staff was repeatedly negative. Initial environmental cultures, including dry surfaces, were also negative. The above measures temporarily controlled cross-transmission but failed to eradicate the epidemic MDRKO strain that reappeared two weeks after the last colonized patients in waves 2 and 3 had been discharged. Therefore, an occult environmental reservoir was suspected. Samples from the drainpipes and traps of a sink were positive; removal of the sink reduced the rate number but did not stop new cases that clustered in a cubicle whose horizontal drainage system was connected with the eliminated sink. The elimination of the horizontal drainage system finally eradicated the outbreak. In conclusion, damp environmental reservoirs (mainly sink drains, traps and the horizontal drainage system) could explain why standard cross-transmission control measures failed to control the outbreak; such reservoirs should be considered even when environmental cultures of surfaces are negative.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Internal Medicine Service, Hospital La Merced, Osuna, Seville, Spain.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23829434

Citation

Vergara-López, S, et al. "Wastewater Drainage System as an Occult Reservoir in a Protracted Clonal Outbreak Due to Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella Oxytoca." Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 11, 2013, pp. E490-8.
Vergara-López S, Domínguez MC, Conejo MC, et al. Wastewater drainage system as an occult reservoir in a protracted clonal outbreak due to metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19(11):E490-8.
Vergara-López, S., Domínguez, M. C., Conejo, M. C., Pascual, Á., & Rodríguez-Baño, J. (2013). Wastewater drainage system as an occult reservoir in a protracted clonal outbreak due to metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca. Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 19(11), E490-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12288
Vergara-López S, et al. Wastewater Drainage System as an Occult Reservoir in a Protracted Clonal Outbreak Due to Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella Oxytoca. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19(11):E490-8. PubMed PMID: 23829434.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Wastewater drainage system as an occult reservoir in a protracted clonal outbreak due to metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca. AU - Vergara-López,S, AU - Domínguez,M C, AU - Conejo,M C, AU - Pascual,Á, AU - Rodríguez-Baño,J, Y1 - 2013/07/05/ PY - 2012/12/22/received PY - 2013/04/17/revised PY - 2013/05/27/accepted PY - 2013/7/9/entrez PY - 2013/7/9/pubmed PY - 2014/5/7/medline KW - Carbapenemase KW - IMP-8 KW - Klebsiella oxytoca KW - environmental reservoir KW - outbreak SP - E490 EP - 8 JF - Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases JO - Clin. Microbiol. Infect. VL - 19 IS - 11 N2 - We describe the epidemiology of a protracted nosocomial clonal outbreak due to multidrug-resistant IMP-8 producing Klebsiella oxytoca (MDRKO) that was finally eradicated by removing an environmental reservoir. The outbreak occurred in the ICU of a Spanish hospital from March 2009 to November 2011 and evolved over four waves. Forty-two patients were affected. First basic (active surveillance, contact precautions and reinforcement of surface cleaning) and later additional control measures (nurse cohorting and establishment of a minimum patient/nurse ratio) were implemented. Screening of ICU staff was repeatedly negative. Initial environmental cultures, including dry surfaces, were also negative. The above measures temporarily controlled cross-transmission but failed to eradicate the epidemic MDRKO strain that reappeared two weeks after the last colonized patients in waves 2 and 3 had been discharged. Therefore, an occult environmental reservoir was suspected. Samples from the drainpipes and traps of a sink were positive; removal of the sink reduced the rate number but did not stop new cases that clustered in a cubicle whose horizontal drainage system was connected with the eliminated sink. The elimination of the horizontal drainage system finally eradicated the outbreak. In conclusion, damp environmental reservoirs (mainly sink drains, traps and the horizontal drainage system) could explain why standard cross-transmission control measures failed to control the outbreak; such reservoirs should be considered even when environmental cultures of surfaces are negative. SN - 1469-0691 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23829434/Wastewater_drainage_system_as_an_occult_reservoir_in_a_protracted_clonal_outbreak_due_to_metallo_β_lactamase_producing_Klebsiella_oxytoca_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198-743X(14)63019-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -