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Human African trypanosomiasis.
Handb Clin Neurol. 2013; 114:169-81.HC

Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR 177 IRD-CIRAD INTERTRYP, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France. Electronic address: veerle.lejon@ird.fr.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23829907

Citation

Lejon, Veerle, et al. "Human African Trypanosomiasis." Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 114, 2013, pp. 169-81.
Lejon V, Bentivoglio M, Franco JR. Human African trypanosomiasis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:169-81.
Lejon, V., Bentivoglio, M., & Franco, J. R. (2013). Human African trypanosomiasis. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 114, 169-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53490-3.00011-X
Lejon V, Bentivoglio M, Franco JR. Human African Trypanosomiasis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:169-81. PubMed PMID: 23829907.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Human African trypanosomiasis. AU - Lejon,Veerle, AU - Bentivoglio,Marina, AU - Franco,José Ramon, PY - 2013/7/9/entrez PY - 2013/7/9/pubmed PY - 2014/4/2/medline KW - Human African trypanosomiasis KW - Trypanosoma brucei gambiense KW - Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense KW - clinical KW - control KW - diagnosis KW - pathogenesis KW - sleeping sickness KW - treatment KW - tsetse fly SP - 169 EP - 81 JF - Handbook of clinical neurology JO - Handb Clin Neurol VL - 114 N2 - Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease. SN - 0072-9752 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23829907/Human_African_trypanosomiasis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B978-0-444-53490-3.00011-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -