Trypanocidal Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius: Identification of Active Sesquiterpene Lactones by Bioassay-Guided Fractionation.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013:627898.EB
In order to find novel plant-derived biologically active compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, we isolated, from the organic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius, the sesquiterpene lactones enhydrin (1), uvedalin (2), and polymatin B (3) by bioassay-guided fractionation technique. These compounds showed a significant trypanocidal activity against the epimastigote forms of the parasite with IC50 values of 0.84 μ M (1), 1.09 μ M (2), and 4.90 μ M (3). After a 24 h treatment with 10 μ g/mL of enhydrin or uvedalin, parasites were not able to recover their replication rate. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 33.4 μ M and 25.0 μ M against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, while polymatin B was not active. When the three compounds were tested against the intracellular forms of T. cruzi, they were able to inhibit the amastigote replication with IC50 of 5.17 μ M, 3.34 μ M, and 9.02 μ M for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in Vero cells obtaining CC50 values of 46.5 μ M (1), 46.8 μ M (2), and 147.3 μ M (3) and the selectivity index calculated. According to these results, enhydrin and uvedalin might have potentials as agents against Chagas disease and could serve as lead molecules to develop new drugs.