Investigation of activity of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids against immature stages of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).Parasitol Res. 2013 Oct; 112(10):3471-6.PR
The objective of this study was to assess the acaricidal activity of carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on unengorged larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, using the modified larval packet test. Carvacrol, eugenol, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde were tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μl/ml, while thymol was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/ml, in all cases with 10 repetitions per treatment. For the A. cajennense larvae, mortality rates caused by carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde at the lowest concentration were 45.0, 62.7, 10.2, and 81.6%, respectively, reached 100% at the concentration of 5.0 μl/ml for carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and 5.0 mg/ml for thymol, while this mortality was observed at 15.0 μl/ml for eugenol. For the nymphs of this species, carvacrol and thymol caused 100% mortality starting at a concentration of 5.0 μl/ml and 10.0 mg/ml, respectively, while eugenol caused 100% mortality at 20.0 μl/ml and the mortality caused by (E)-cinnamaldehyde did not exceed 64%. In the tests with R. sanguineus larvae, the lowest concentration of carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde resulted in 100% mortality, while this percentage was observed starting at 10.0 μl/ml for eugenol. For nymphs, carvacrol and thymol at the smallest concentration caused 100% lethality, unlike the results for eugenol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, where 100% mortality was only observed starting at the concentration of 10.0 μl/ml. The results obtained indicate that the tested substances have acaricidal activity on unengorged larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense and R. sanguineus.