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Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.

METHODS

This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses.

FINDINGS

The 312 944 cohort members contributed 4 013 131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03-1·45] per 10 μg/m(3)). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96-1·46) per 5 μg/m(3). The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10-2·08) and 1·55 (1·05-2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99-1·21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95-1·07] per 20 μg/m(3)) or traffic intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97-1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day).

INTERPRETATION

Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe.

FUNDING

European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.

Links

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk

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    Source

    The Lancet. Oncology 14:9 2013 Aug pg 813-22

    MeSH

    Adenocarcinoma
    Adult
    Aged
    Air Pollution
    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
    Environmental Exposure
    Europe
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Incidence
    Lung Neoplasms
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Particulate Matter
    Prognosis
    Prospective Studies

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23849838

    Citation

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole, et al. "Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence in 17 European Cohorts: Prospective Analyses From the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)." The Lancet. Oncology, vol. 14, no. 9, 2013, pp. 813-22.
    Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Beelen R, et al. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(9):813-22.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Andersen, Z. J., Beelen, R., Samoli, E., Stafoggia, M., Weinmayr, G., ... Hoek, G. (2013). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The Lancet. Oncology, 14(9), pp. 813-22. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1.
    Raaschou-Nielsen O, et al. Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence in 17 European Cohorts: Prospective Analyses From the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(9):813-22. PubMed PMID: 23849838.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). AU - Raaschou-Nielsen,Ole, AU - Andersen,Zorana J, AU - Beelen,Rob, AU - Samoli,Evangelia, AU - Stafoggia,Massimo, AU - Weinmayr,Gudrun, AU - Hoffmann,Barbara, AU - Fischer,Paul, AU - Nieuwenhuijsen,Mark J, AU - Brunekreef,Bert, AU - Xun,Wei W, AU - Katsouyanni,Klea, AU - Dimakopoulou,Konstantina, AU - Sommar,Johan, AU - Forsberg,Bertil, AU - Modig,Lars, AU - Oudin,Anna, AU - Oftedal,Bente, AU - Schwarze,Per E, AU - Nafstad,Per, AU - De Faire,Ulf, AU - Pedersen,Nancy L, AU - Ostenson,Claes-Göran, AU - Fratiglioni,Laura, AU - Penell,Johanna, AU - Korek,Michal, AU - Pershagen,Göran, AU - Eriksen,Kirsten T, AU - Sørensen,Mette, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Ellermann,Thomas, AU - Eeftens,Marloes, AU - Peeters,Petra H, AU - Meliefste,Kees, AU - Wang,Meng, AU - Bueno-de-Mesquita,Bas, AU - Key,Timothy J, AU - de Hoogh,Kees, AU - Concin,Hans, AU - Nagel,Gabriele, AU - Vilier,Alice, AU - Grioni,Sara, AU - Krogh,Vittorio, AU - Tsai,Ming-Yi, AU - Ricceri,Fulvio, AU - Sacerdote,Carlotta, AU - Galassi,Claudia, AU - Migliore,Enrica, AU - Ranzi,Andrea, AU - Cesaroni,Giulia, AU - Badaloni,Chiara, AU - Forastiere,Francesco, AU - Tamayo,Ibon, AU - Amiano,Pilar, AU - Dorronsoro,Miren, AU - Trichopoulou,Antonia, AU - Bamia,Christina, AU - Vineis,Paolo, AU - Hoek,Gerard, Y1 - 2013/07/10/ PY - 2013/7/16/entrez PY - 2013/7/16/pubmed PY - 2013/10/1/medline SP - 813 EP - 22 JF - The Lancet. Oncology JO - Lancet Oncol. VL - 14 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. METHODS: This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses. FINDINGS: The 312 944 cohort members contributed 4 013 131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03-1·45] per 10 μg/m(3)). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96-1·46) per 5 μg/m(3). The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10-2·08) and 1·55 (1·05-2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99-1·21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95-1·07] per 20 μg/m(3)) or traffic intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97-1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day). INTERPRETATION: Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe. FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. SN - 1474-5488 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23849838/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1470-2045(13)70279-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -