Formation and speciation of nine haloacetamides, an emerging class of nitrogenous DBPs, during chlorination or chloramination.J Hazard Mater. 2013 Sep 15; 260:806-12.JH
Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern. However, there are very limited data on the formation and speciation of the nine bromine- and chlorine-containing haloacetamides (HAcAm9). In the study, their formation and speciation during chlor(am)ination were investigated for a group of waters with a range of specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA₂₅₄), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and bromide levels. The waters that were the least impacted by anthropogenic pollution had the lowest DON levels, the highest ratios of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to DON, and exhibited the least HAcAm9 formation. DON/DOC may act as an indicator of HAcAm yields during chlorination. HAcAm9 exhibited more formation during chloramination in the low-SUVA waters with no bromide, relative to high-SUVA waters with bromide. The selected waters all formed primarily dihalogenated (di-) HAcAms, followed by trihalogenated (tri-) species and, to a much lesser extent, monohalogenated (mono-) HAcAms. Di-HAcAm formation had similar trends as that of HAcAm9; whereas chloramination formed more mono- and less tri-HAcAms than chlorination. Bromine utilization factors and bromine incorporation factor increased with decreasing and increasing bromide during either chlorination or chloramination, and bromine was easier to incorporate into tri-HAcAms during chloramination than chlorination.