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Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements.

Abstract

Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Research Station Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux ALP, Bern, Switzerland. barbara.walther@agroscope.admin.ch

    , ,

    Source

    Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) 4:4 2013 Jul 01 pg 463-73

    MeSH

    Animal Feed
    Animals
    Bacteria
    Biological Availability
    Bone and Bones
    Cardiovascular System
    Dairy Products
    Diet
    Fermentation
    Food
    Food Analysis
    Health Promotion
    Humans
    Neoplasms
    Nutrition Policy
    Nutritional Requirements
    Vitamin K
    Vitamin K 2

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23858094

    Citation

    Walther, Barbara, et al. "Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: the Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 4, no. 4, 2013, pp. 463-73.
    Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, et al. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements. Adv Nutr. 2013;4(4):463-73.
    Walther, B., Karl, J. P., Booth, S. L., & Boyaval, P. (2013). Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 4(4), pp. 463-73. doi:10.3945/an.113.003855.
    Walther B, et al. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: the Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements. Adv Nutr. 2013 Jul 1;4(4):463-73. PubMed PMID: 23858094.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements. AU - Walther,Barbara, AU - Karl,J Philip, AU - Booth,Sarah L, AU - Boyaval,Patrick, Y1 - 2013/07/01/ PY - 2013/7/17/entrez PY - 2013/7/17/pubmed PY - 2013/10/18/medline SP - 463 EP - 73 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 4 IS - 4 N2 - Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23858094/Menaquinones_bacteria_and_the_food_supply:_the_relevance_of_dairy_and_fermented_food_products_to_vitamin_K_requirements_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/an.113.003855 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -