Small Neutral Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Acyclovir Targeting Amino Acid Transporters on the Cornea: Possible Antiviral Agents Against Ocular HSV-1 Infections.Ophthalmol Eye Dis. 2010; 2:43-56.OE
The aim of this study was to characterize the affinity and permeability patterns of the amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV), L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-serine-succinate-ACV (SSACV) and L-cysteine-ACV (CACV) on rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell culture (rPCEC) and on rabbit cornea. Amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir, AACV, SACV, SSACV and CACV were synthesized in our laboratory. Chemical hydrolysis in aqueous buffer, enzymatic hydrolysis in corneal homogenates and transport across freshly excised rabbit cornea of these prodrugs were studied. SSACV inhibited the uptake of [(3)H] L-alanine on rPCEC and across the intact rabbit cornea. Lineweaver-Burk plot transformation revealed competitive inhibition between L-alanine and SSACV. In corneal tissue homogenate, the half lives of SSACV, SACV and CACV (t1/2) were observed to be 3.5 ± 0.4, 9.2 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.1 hr respectively, whereas AACV was readily converted to the active parent drug acyclovir exhibiting complete degradation before 5 min. Interestingly translocation of SACV across cornea was inhibited in the presence of 5 mM arginine (~51%), a specific substrate for cationic transport system and in presence of BCH (~38%), a substrate specific for large neutral amino acid transport system (LAT) or cationic and neutral amino acid transport system (B(0,+)). SACV exhibited higher permeability across cornea along with excellent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in comparison to ACV. Recognition by multiple transporters, stability in corneal homogenate and changes in physico-chemical properties contributed to the increased permeability of SACV across cornea.