Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on trace metal uptake by sunflower plants grown on cadmium contaminated soil.N Biotechnol. 2013 Sep 25; 30(6):780-7.NB
Trace metal (TM) pollution of soil is a worldwide problem that threatens the quality of human and environmental health. Phytoremediation using plants and their associated microbes has been increasingly used as a green technology for cleaning up TM-polluted soils. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculating two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates, Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae, on trace metal uptake by sunflower plants grown in soils contaminated with three different Cd concentrations in a greenhouse trial. Root colonization, plant dry mass, and plant tissue cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations in roots and shoots were determined after sunflower harvesting. We found that root mycorrhizal colonization rates were not significantly affected by Cd treatments. At low soil Cd concentration, R. irregularis-inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot Cd and Zn concentrations than plants inoculated with F. mosseae and non-inoculated plants. However, at high soil Cd concentrations, F. mosseae-inoculated plants had significantly lower shoot Cd and Zn concentrations and biological concentration factor (BCF) values than plants inoculated with R. irregularis and non-inoculated plants. Cadmium was mainly translocated in shoot tissues of R. irregularis-inoculated plants and sequestered in the rhizosphere of F. mosseae-inoculated plants. The results indicate that these AMF strains mediate different tolerance strategies to alleviate TM toxicity in their host plants and that inoculation with the R. irregularis strain can be used for Cd phytoextraction, whereas this F. mosseae strain can be useful for Cd and Zn phytostabilization of contaminated soil.