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Effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves.
J Anim Sci 2013; 91(9):4315-21JA

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation variables, and intestinal absorptive capability in Holstein male calves (n = 39). Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (13 calves per treatment): 1) milk replacer (MR), 2) one-half of the amount of MR in treatment 1, plus a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (HMCS), or 3) a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (CS). All the calves were started at 2 ± 1 d of age and studied for 150 d. Each 30 d was defined as 1 period. Dry matter intake and growth were measured daily and monthly, respectively. All calves were harvested at 150 d of age, after which rumen fluid was collected. Rumen and intestine samples were gathered. Calves fed MR exhibited greater BW (P = 0.001) and ADG (P < 0.001), compared with calves fed HMCS and CS from period 2 to 3; however, from period 4 to 5, CS calves had greater (P < 0.04) ADG than MR calves. The treatments did not differ in final BW (P = 0.72) and ADG (P = 0.20) from period 2 to 5. Compared with HMCS and MR calves, CS calves had the greatest DMI (P < 0.001) and the least feed efficiency (P < 0.001) from period 2 to 5. For ruminal fermentation parameters, CS calves had decreased (P = 0.04) rumen pH than MR calves. The NH3 concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in calves fed HMCS than calves fed MR and CS. Total VFA concentrations were greatest in CS calves (P = 0.02). Calves fed CS had the greatest molar concentrations of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.002), and calves fed HMCS had the greatest molar concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.001) and isovalerate (P = 0.001). The CS calves exhibited greater empty rumen weight (P = 0.001), papillae length (P < 0.001), papillae width (P < 0.001), rumen wall thickness (P = 0.012), and papillae density (P = 0.003). The greatest villus heights in the jejunum (P = 0.04) and ileum (P = 0.005) were observed in CS calves. Compared with HMCS calves, calves fed CS had greater villus:crypt ratios in the duodenum (P = 0.001) and jejunum (P = 0.001). Results indicate that CS improves ADG in period 4 to 5 and positively contributes to ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 PR China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23881685

Citation

Xie, X X., et al. "Effects of a Mixture of Steam-flaked Corn and Extruded Soybeans On Performance, Ruminal Development, Ruminal Fermentation, and Intestinal Absorptive Capability in Veal Calves." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 91, no. 9, 2013, pp. 4315-21.
Xie XX, Meng QX, Liu P, et al. Effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves. J Anim Sci. 2013;91(9):4315-21.
Xie, X. X., Meng, Q. X., Liu, P., Wu, H., Li, S. R., Ren, L. P., & Li, X. Z. (2013). Effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves. Journal of Animal Science, 91(9), pp. 4315-21. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5731.
Xie XX, et al. Effects of a Mixture of Steam-flaked Corn and Extruded Soybeans On Performance, Ruminal Development, Ruminal Fermentation, and Intestinal Absorptive Capability in Veal Calves. J Anim Sci. 2013;91(9):4315-21. PubMed PMID: 23881685.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves. AU - Xie,X X, AU - Meng,Q X, AU - Liu,P, AU - Wu,H, AU - Li,S R, AU - Ren,L P, AU - Li,X Z, Y1 - 2013/07/23/ PY - 2013/7/25/entrez PY - 2013/7/25/pubmed PY - 2014/4/1/medline SP - 4315 EP - 21 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J. Anim. Sci. VL - 91 IS - 9 N2 - This study investigated the effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation variables, and intestinal absorptive capability in Holstein male calves (n = 39). Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (13 calves per treatment): 1) milk replacer (MR), 2) one-half of the amount of MR in treatment 1, plus a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (HMCS), or 3) a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (CS). All the calves were started at 2 ± 1 d of age and studied for 150 d. Each 30 d was defined as 1 period. Dry matter intake and growth were measured daily and monthly, respectively. All calves were harvested at 150 d of age, after which rumen fluid was collected. Rumen and intestine samples were gathered. Calves fed MR exhibited greater BW (P = 0.001) and ADG (P < 0.001), compared with calves fed HMCS and CS from period 2 to 3; however, from period 4 to 5, CS calves had greater (P < 0.04) ADG than MR calves. The treatments did not differ in final BW (P = 0.72) and ADG (P = 0.20) from period 2 to 5. Compared with HMCS and MR calves, CS calves had the greatest DMI (P < 0.001) and the least feed efficiency (P < 0.001) from period 2 to 5. For ruminal fermentation parameters, CS calves had decreased (P = 0.04) rumen pH than MR calves. The NH3 concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in calves fed HMCS than calves fed MR and CS. Total VFA concentrations were greatest in CS calves (P = 0.02). Calves fed CS had the greatest molar concentrations of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.002), and calves fed HMCS had the greatest molar concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.001) and isovalerate (P = 0.001). The CS calves exhibited greater empty rumen weight (P = 0.001), papillae length (P < 0.001), papillae width (P < 0.001), rumen wall thickness (P = 0.012), and papillae density (P = 0.003). The greatest villus heights in the jejunum (P = 0.04) and ileum (P = 0.005) were observed in CS calves. Compared with HMCS calves, calves fed CS had greater villus:crypt ratios in the duodenum (P = 0.001) and jejunum (P = 0.001). Results indicate that CS improves ADG in period 4 to 5 and positively contributes to ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23881685/Effects_of_a_mixture_of_steam_flaked_corn_and_extruded_soybeans_on_performance_ruminal_development_ruminal_fermentation_and_intestinal_absorptive_capability_in_veal_calves_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2012-5731 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -