Superficial venous disease.Surg Clin North Am. 2013 Aug; 93(4):963-82, ix-x.SC
Superficial venous disease is a common clinical problem. The concerning disease states of the superficial venous system are venous reflux, varicose veins, and superficial venous thrombosis. Superficial venous reflux can be a significant contributor to chronic venous stasis wounds of the lower extremity, the treatment of which can be costly both in terms of overall health care expenditure and lost working days for affected patients. Although commonly thought of as a benign process, superficial venous thrombosis is associated with several underlying pathologic processes, including malignancy and deep venous thrombosis.