Patient characteristics and severity of human rhinovirus infections in children.J Clin Virol. 2013 Sep; 58(1):216-20.JC
It is increasingly recognized that human rhinoviruses (HRV) can be associated with severe infections. However, conflicting results have been reported on the relative prevalence and severity of the three HRV species.
The relative prevalence and clinical characteristics of HRV-A, B and C, in children attending a South London teaching hospital were investigated retrospectively.
Children aged<16 years with episodes of respiratory tract infections and detectable entero/rhinovirus RNA in respiratory samples between November 2009 and December 2010 were investigated. Retrospective case review was performed and patients' characteristics recorded.
Entero/rhinoviruses were the commonest viral pathogens (498/2316; 21.5%). Amongst 204 infection episodes associated with entero/rhinovirus, 167 were typed HRV, HRV-C was the most prevalent (99/167, 59.3%) followed by HRV-A (60/167; 35.9%) and HRV-B (8/167, 4.8%). The severity spectrum of HRV-A and HRV-C infections were similar and affected all parts of the respiratory tract. Co-pathogens were observed in 54 (26.5%) episodes. Severity was increased in patients with non-viral co-pathogens and those with an underlying respiratory condition. Univariate and multiple regression analyses of potential prognostic variables including age, co-pathogens and underlying respiratory illnesses showed that mono-infection with HRV-C, as compared with other HRV species, was associated with more severe disease in young children<3 years.
HRV-C was the most prevalent species and on its own was associated with severe disease in children<3 years. The association between infection with HRV species and clinical presentation is complex and affected by many confounding factors.