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Diet, cognition, and Alzheimer's disease: food for thought.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

The prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a real challenge due to its rising prevalence and the lack of an effective cure. Diet and nutrients have gained significant interest as potentially modifiable protective factors.

PURPOSE

The aim of this review is to provide an updated summary of evidence related to the effect of diet and nutritional factors on the risk of AD and cognitive aging, and discuss the potential mechanisms and confounding factors involved.

METHODS

A search was conducted in Medline and Web of Knowledge for epidemiological and clinical studies in the international literature from January 2000 to February 2013 using combinations of the following keywords: "Alzheimer's disease", "mild cognitive impairment", "cognitive function", "dietary factors", "omega-3", "antioxidants", "B vitamins", "dietary patterns", and "Mediterranean diet".

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Data from observational studies point to a protective role for certain nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants or B vitamins, and dietary patterns (Mediterranean diet). However, data from randomized controlled trials do not show a consistent effect. Whether confounding factors such as age, disease stage, other dietary components, cooking processes, and other methodological issues explain the divergent results remains to be established. Moreover, if certain nutrients protect against dementia, it is as yet unknown whether they may have a general effect on brain vascular health or directly interfere with the etiopathogenesis of AD.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Neurology, Fundación CITA-alzhéimer Fundazioa, Paseo Mikeletegi 71, Planta 1, 20009, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Spain, aotaegui@cita-alzheimer.org.

    , , ,

    Source

    European journal of nutrition 53:1 2014 Feb pg 1-23

    MeSH

    Aging
    Alzheimer Disease
    Antioxidants
    Cognition
    Diet
    Dietary Supplements
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Humans
    Meta-Analysis as Topic
    Observational Studies as Topic
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Vitamin B Complex

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23892520

    Citation

    Otaegui-Arrazola, Ane, et al. "Diet, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease: Food for Thought." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-23.
    Otaegui-Arrazola A, Amiano P, Elbusto A, et al. Diet, cognition, and Alzheimer's disease: food for thought. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(1):1-23.
    Otaegui-Arrazola, A., Amiano, P., Elbusto, A., Urdaneta, E., & Martínez-Lage, P. (2014). Diet, cognition, and Alzheimer's disease: food for thought. European Journal of Nutrition, 53(1), pp. 1-23. doi:10.1007/s00394-013-0561-3.
    Otaegui-Arrazola A, et al. Diet, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease: Food for Thought. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(1):1-23. PubMed PMID: 23892520.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diet, cognition, and Alzheimer's disease: food for thought. AU - Otaegui-Arrazola,Ane, AU - Amiano,Pilar, AU - Elbusto,Ana, AU - Urdaneta,Elena, AU - Martínez-Lage,Pablo, Y1 - 2013/07/27/ PY - 2013/04/19/received PY - 2013/07/11/accepted PY - 2013/7/30/entrez PY - 2013/7/31/pubmed PY - 2014/9/26/medline SP - 1 EP - 23 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 53 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: The prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a real challenge due to its rising prevalence and the lack of an effective cure. Diet and nutrients have gained significant interest as potentially modifiable protective factors. PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to provide an updated summary of evidence related to the effect of diet and nutritional factors on the risk of AD and cognitive aging, and discuss the potential mechanisms and confounding factors involved. METHODS: A search was conducted in Medline and Web of Knowledge for epidemiological and clinical studies in the international literature from January 2000 to February 2013 using combinations of the following keywords: "Alzheimer's disease", "mild cognitive impairment", "cognitive function", "dietary factors", "omega-3", "antioxidants", "B vitamins", "dietary patterns", and "Mediterranean diet". RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Data from observational studies point to a protective role for certain nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants or B vitamins, and dietary patterns (Mediterranean diet). However, data from randomized controlled trials do not show a consistent effect. Whether confounding factors such as age, disease stage, other dietary components, cooking processes, and other methodological issues explain the divergent results remains to be established. Moreover, if certain nutrients protect against dementia, it is as yet unknown whether they may have a general effect on brain vascular health or directly interfere with the etiopathogenesis of AD. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23892520/Diet_cognition_and_Alzheimer's_disease:_food_for_thought_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0561-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -