Formation of disinfection by-products after pre-oxidation with chlorine dioxide or ferrate.Water Res. 2013 Oct 01; 47(15):5856-64.WR
The effect of pre-oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or ferrate (Fe(VI)) on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination or chloramination was tested with natural waters from 12 sources (9 surface waters, 1 groundwater, and 2 wastewater effluents). DBPs investigated included trihalomethanes (THM), chloral hydrate (CH), haloketones (HK), haloacetonitriles (HAN) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), chlorite and chlorate. Chlorite and chlorate were found in the ClO2-treated waters. Application of 1 mg/L ClO2 ahead of chlorination reduced the formation potential for THM by up to 45% and the formation of HK, HAN and TCNM in most of the samples. The CH formation results were mixed. The formation of CH and HK was enhanced with low doses of Fe(VI) (1 mg/L as Fe), but was greatly reduced at higher doses (20 mg/L Fe). Fe(VI) reduced the formation of THM, HAN and TCNM in most of the samples. Reduced potential for the formation of NDMA was observed in most of the samples after both ClO2 and Fe(VI) pre-oxidation.