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Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis.
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014 Jan-Feb; 12(1):88-94.TM

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Immigrants are increasingly traveling back to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFRs). They account for an important proportion of all international travelers and have a high risk for certain travel-related infectious diseases.

METHODS

We describe the spectrum of infectious diseases diagnosed in a cohort of 351 VFRs and compare them with two previously published cohorts: of immigrants and travelers attended at our centre.

RESULTS

The most frequent diagnoses observed among VFRs were typical travel-associated infections such as malaria (75 [21.4%]), traveler's diarrhea 17 [4.8%]), intestinal parasites (16 [4.6%]) and dengue (11 [3.1%]). Asymptomatic chronic infectious diseases, such as latent tuberculosis (56 [16%]), chronic viral hepatitis (18 [5.1%]) and filariasis (18 [5.1%]), probably acquired before migration, were also observed.

CONCLUSIONS

VFRs should thus be approached from two perspectives as concerns imported infectious diseases: as travelers and as immigrants. Etiological studies focusing on the presenting complaint as well as systematic screening for other latent infectious diseases should be performed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain. Electronic address: rlopezvelez.hrc@salud.madrid.org.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23907026

Citation

Monge-Maillo, B, et al. "Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) and Imported Infectious Disease: Travelers, Immigrants or Both? a Comparative Analysis." Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 12, no. 1, 2014, pp. 88-94.
Monge-Maillo B, Norman FF, Pérez-Molina JA, et al. Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014;12(1):88-94.
Monge-Maillo, B., Norman, F. F., Pérez-Molina, J. A., Navarro, M., Díaz-Menéndez, M., & López-Vélez, R. (2014). Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 12(1), 88-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.07.004
Monge-Maillo B, et al. Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) and Imported Infectious Disease: Travelers, Immigrants or Both? a Comparative Analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014;12(1):88-94. PubMed PMID: 23907026.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis. AU - Monge-Maillo,B, AU - Norman,F F, AU - Pérez-Molina,J A, AU - Navarro,M, AU - Díaz-Menéndez,M, AU - López-Vélez,R, Y1 - 2013/07/29/ PY - 2013/04/03/received PY - 2013/07/05/revised PY - 2013/07/08/accepted PY - 2013/8/3/entrez PY - 2013/8/3/pubmed PY - 2014/9/30/medline KW - Immigrants KW - Infectious diseases KW - Public health KW - Travel medicine SP - 88 EP - 94 JF - Travel medicine and infectious disease JO - Travel Med Infect Dis VL - 12 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Immigrants are increasingly traveling back to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFRs). They account for an important proportion of all international travelers and have a high risk for certain travel-related infectious diseases. METHODS: We describe the spectrum of infectious diseases diagnosed in a cohort of 351 VFRs and compare them with two previously published cohorts: of immigrants and travelers attended at our centre. RESULTS: The most frequent diagnoses observed among VFRs were typical travel-associated infections such as malaria (75 [21.4%]), traveler's diarrhea 17 [4.8%]), intestinal parasites (16 [4.6%]) and dengue (11 [3.1%]). Asymptomatic chronic infectious diseases, such as latent tuberculosis (56 [16%]), chronic viral hepatitis (18 [5.1%]) and filariasis (18 [5.1%]), probably acquired before migration, were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: VFRs should thus be approached from two perspectives as concerns imported infectious diseases: as travelers and as immigrants. Etiological studies focusing on the presenting complaint as well as systematic screening for other latent infectious diseases should be performed. SN - 1873-0442 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23907026/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1477-8939(13)00107-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -