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Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis.
Travel Med Infect Dis 2014 Jan-Feb; 12(1):88-94TM

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Immigrants are increasingly traveling back to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFRs). They account for an important proportion of all international travelers and have a high risk for certain travel-related infectious diseases.

METHODS

We describe the spectrum of infectious diseases diagnosed in a cohort of 351 VFRs and compare them with two previously published cohorts: of immigrants and travelers attended at our centre.

RESULTS

The most frequent diagnoses observed among VFRs were typical travel-associated infections such as malaria (75 [21.4%]), traveler's diarrhea 17 [4.8%]), intestinal parasites (16 [4.6%]) and dengue (11 [3.1%]). Asymptomatic chronic infectious diseases, such as latent tuberculosis (56 [16%]), chronic viral hepatitis (18 [5.1%]) and filariasis (18 [5.1%]), probably acquired before migration, were also observed.

CONCLUSIONS

VFRs should thus be approached from two perspectives as concerns imported infectious diseases: as travelers and as immigrants. Etiological studies focusing on the presenting complaint as well as systematic screening for other latent infectious diseases should be performed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain.Tropical Medicine & Clinical Parasitology, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9.1, Madrid 28034, Spain. Electronic address: rlopezvelez.hrc@salud.madrid.org.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23907026

Citation

Monge-Maillo, B, et al. "Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) and Imported Infectious Disease: Travelers, Immigrants or Both? a Comparative Analysis." Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 12, no. 1, 2014, pp. 88-94.
Monge-Maillo B, Norman FF, Pérez-Molina JA, et al. Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014;12(1):88-94.
Monge-Maillo, B., Norman, F. F., Pérez-Molina, J. A., Navarro, M., Díaz-Menéndez, M., & López-Vélez, R. (2014). Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 12(1), pp. 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.07.004.
Monge-Maillo B, et al. Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) and Imported Infectious Disease: Travelers, Immigrants or Both? a Comparative Analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014;12(1):88-94. PubMed PMID: 23907026.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and imported infectious disease: travelers, immigrants or both? A comparative analysis. AU - Monge-Maillo,B, AU - Norman,F F, AU - Pérez-Molina,J A, AU - Navarro,M, AU - Díaz-Menéndez,M, AU - López-Vélez,R, Y1 - 2013/07/29/ PY - 2013/04/03/received PY - 2013/07/05/revised PY - 2013/07/08/accepted PY - 2013/8/3/entrez PY - 2013/8/3/pubmed PY - 2014/9/30/medline KW - Immigrants KW - Infectious diseases KW - Public health KW - Travel medicine SP - 88 EP - 94 JF - Travel medicine and infectious disease JO - Travel Med Infect Dis VL - 12 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Immigrants are increasingly traveling back to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFRs). They account for an important proportion of all international travelers and have a high risk for certain travel-related infectious diseases. METHODS: We describe the spectrum of infectious diseases diagnosed in a cohort of 351 VFRs and compare them with two previously published cohorts: of immigrants and travelers attended at our centre. RESULTS: The most frequent diagnoses observed among VFRs were typical travel-associated infections such as malaria (75 [21.4%]), traveler's diarrhea 17 [4.8%]), intestinal parasites (16 [4.6%]) and dengue (11 [3.1%]). Asymptomatic chronic infectious diseases, such as latent tuberculosis (56 [16%]), chronic viral hepatitis (18 [5.1%]) and filariasis (18 [5.1%]), probably acquired before migration, were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: VFRs should thus be approached from two perspectives as concerns imported infectious diseases: as travelers and as immigrants. Etiological studies focusing on the presenting complaint as well as systematic screening for other latent infectious diseases should be performed. SN - 1873-0442 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23907026/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1477-8939(13)00107-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -