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Prediction of toddlers' expressive language from maternal sensitivity and toddlers' anger expressions: a developmental perspective.
Infant Behav Dev. 2013 Dec; 36(4):650-61.IB

Abstract

Despite evidence for the importance of individual differences in expressive language during toddlerhood in predicting later literacy skills, few researchers have examined individual and contextual factors related to language abilities across the toddler years. Furthermore, a gap remains in the literature about the extent to which the relations of negative emotions and parenting to language skills may differ for girls and boys. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the associations among maternal sensitivity, children's observed anger reactivity, and expressive language when children were 18 (T1; n = 247) and 30 (T2; n = 216) months. At each age, mothers reported on their toddlers' expressive language, and mothers' sensitive parenting behavior was observed during an unstructured free-play task. Toddlers' anger expressions were observed during an emotion-eliciting task. Using path modeling, results showed few relations at T1. At T2, maternal sensitivity was negatively related to anger, and in turn, anger was associated with lower language skills. However, moderation analyses showed that these findings were significant for boys but not for girls. In addition, T1 maternal sensitivity and anger positively predicted expressive language longitudinally for both sexes. Findings suggest that the relations between maternal sensitivity, anger reactivity and expressive language may vary depending on the child's developmental stage and sex.

Authors+Show Affiliations

T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics, Arizona State University, United States.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23911594

Citation

Nozadi, Sara S., et al. "Prediction of Toddlers' Expressive Language From Maternal Sensitivity and Toddlers' Anger Expressions: a Developmental Perspective." Infant Behavior & Development, vol. 36, no. 4, 2013, pp. 650-61.
Nozadi SS, Spinrad TL, Eisenberg N, et al. Prediction of toddlers' expressive language from maternal sensitivity and toddlers' anger expressions: a developmental perspective. Infant Behav Dev. 2013;36(4):650-61.
Nozadi, S. S., Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Bolnick, R., Eggum-Wilkens, N. D., Smith, C. L., Gaertner, B., Kupfer, A., & Sallquist, J. (2013). Prediction of toddlers' expressive language from maternal sensitivity and toddlers' anger expressions: a developmental perspective. Infant Behavior & Development, 36(4), 650-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.06.002
Nozadi SS, et al. Prediction of Toddlers' Expressive Language From Maternal Sensitivity and Toddlers' Anger Expressions: a Developmental Perspective. Infant Behav Dev. 2013;36(4):650-61. PubMed PMID: 23911594.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prediction of toddlers' expressive language from maternal sensitivity and toddlers' anger expressions: a developmental perspective. AU - Nozadi,Sara S, AU - Spinrad,Tracy L, AU - Eisenberg,Nancy, AU - Bolnick,Rebecca, AU - Eggum-Wilkens,Natalie D, AU - Smith,Cynthia L, AU - Gaertner,Bridget, AU - Kupfer,Anne, AU - Sallquist,Julie, Y1 - 2013/08/01/ PY - 2013/02/12/received PY - 2013/05/08/revised PY - 2013/06/07/accepted PY - 2013/8/6/entrez PY - 2013/8/6/pubmed PY - 2014/6/15/medline KW - Anger KW - Child sex KW - Expressive language KW - Maternal sensitivity KW - Toddlers’ negative emotions SP - 650 EP - 61 JF - Infant behavior & development JO - Infant Behav Dev VL - 36 IS - 4 N2 - Despite evidence for the importance of individual differences in expressive language during toddlerhood in predicting later literacy skills, few researchers have examined individual and contextual factors related to language abilities across the toddler years. Furthermore, a gap remains in the literature about the extent to which the relations of negative emotions and parenting to language skills may differ for girls and boys. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the associations among maternal sensitivity, children's observed anger reactivity, and expressive language when children were 18 (T1; n = 247) and 30 (T2; n = 216) months. At each age, mothers reported on their toddlers' expressive language, and mothers' sensitive parenting behavior was observed during an unstructured free-play task. Toddlers' anger expressions were observed during an emotion-eliciting task. Using path modeling, results showed few relations at T1. At T2, maternal sensitivity was negatively related to anger, and in turn, anger was associated with lower language skills. However, moderation analyses showed that these findings were significant for boys but not for girls. In addition, T1 maternal sensitivity and anger positively predicted expressive language longitudinally for both sexes. Findings suggest that the relations between maternal sensitivity, anger reactivity and expressive language may vary depending on the child's developmental stage and sex. SN - 1934-8800 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23911594/Prediction_of_toddlers'_expressive_language_from_maternal_sensitivity_and_toddlers'_anger_expressions:_a_developmental_perspective_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0163-6383(13)00070-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -