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Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.
Nutrients 2013; 5(8):3005-21N

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria. katharina.kienreich@medunigraz.atNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23912328

Citation

Kienreich, Katharina, et al. "Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease." Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 8, 2013, pp. 3005-21.
Kienreich K, Tomaschitz A, Verheyen N, et al. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Nutrients. 2013;5(8):3005-21.
Kienreich, K., Tomaschitz, A., Verheyen, N., Pieber, T., Gaksch, M., Grübler, M. R., & Pilz, S. (2013). Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Nutrients, 5(8), pp. 3005-21. doi:10.3390/nu5083005.
Kienreich K, et al. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2013 Jul 31;5(8):3005-21. PubMed PMID: 23912328.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. AU - Kienreich,Katharina, AU - Tomaschitz,Andreas, AU - Verheyen,Nicolas, AU - Pieber,Thomas, AU - Gaksch,Martin, AU - Grübler,Martin R, AU - Pilz,Stefan, Y1 - 2013/07/31/ PY - 2013/05/07/received PY - 2013/06/25/revised PY - 2013/07/23/accepted PY - 2013/8/6/entrez PY - 2013/8/6/pubmed PY - 2014/2/26/medline SP - 3005 EP - 21 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 5 IS - 8 N2 - Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23912328/Vitamin_D_and_cardiovascular_disease_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu5083005 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -