Inhibition of Src tyrosine kinase activity by squamosamide derivative FLZ attenuates neuroinflammation in both in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models.Neuropharmacology. 2013 Dec; 75:201-12.N
The participation of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been validated. Excessive activated microglia release a large number of pro-inflammatory factors, damage surrounding neurons and eventually induce neurodegeneration. Inhibition of microglial over-activation might be a promising strategy for PD treatment. FLZ (formulated as: N-(2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl)-2-(2, 5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide, the code name: FLZ), a natural squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, has been shown to inhibit over-activated microglia and protect dopaminergic neurons in previous studies, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in vivo and in vitro PD models. FLZ treatment significantly improved the motor dysfunction of PD model rats induced by intra-nigral injection of LPS and this beneficial effect of FLZ attributed to the inhibition of microglial over-activation and the protection on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). In vitro mechanistic study revealed that the inhibitive effect of FLZ on microglia was mediated by suppressing Src kinase related inflammatory signaling pathway activation and subsequent NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation, inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation. In conclusion, the present study supports that FLZ exerts neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration through its anti-inflammatory effect, which is mediated by suppressing Src tyrosine kinase and the downstream inflammatory signaling pathway. Furthermore, this study defines a critical role of Src tyrosine kinase in neuroinflammation, and suggests that particular tyrosine kinase inhibition may be a potential anti-inflammatory approach for PD treatment.