Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989-2010.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Dec; 113(12):1683-94.JA
Despite the historical rise and recent plateau of child overweight and obesity, levels remain exceedingly high. To understand these trends and identify targets for intervention it is important to examine concomitant trends in children's diets. The objective of our analysis was to describe 21-year trends in total energy intake and the major food and beverage sources of energy among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Six nationally representative surveys were examined in 2012, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 and 1994-1996, 1998) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010). Total energy intake among US children and adolescents rose considerably from 1989 to 2004, and subsequently declined through 2010. Seven sources were consistently major contributors across all time points: sugar-sweetened beverages, pizza, full-fat milk, grain-based desserts, breads, pasta dishes, and savory snacks. Intakes of full-fat milk, meats and processed meat products, ready-to-eat cereals, burgers, fried potatoes, fruit juice, and vegetables decreased from 1989-2010 whereas intakes of nonfat milk, poultry, sweet snacks and candies, and tortilla- and corn-based dishes increased linearly over the 21-year period. Significant nonlinear time trends were observed with recent decreases in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, pizza, pasta dishes, breads and rolls, and savory snacks and recent increases in intake of fruit. Energy intakes of US children began to decline in 2003-2004 and continued to decline through 2009-2010. However, among preschool children (aged 2 to 5 years) and children from low-income families, total energy intakes in 2009-2010 still remained significantly higher than in 1989-1991.