Accumulated uremic toxins attenuate bone mechanical properties in rats with chronic kidney disease.Bone 2013; 57(2):477-83BONE
The prevalence of hip fracture is very high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the reason for this is unclear. We examined the effects of accumulated uremic toxins on bone chemical composition and elastic mechanical properties. Rats underwent thyroparathyroidectomy and progressive partial nephrectomy (TPTx-Nx), and were administered with vehicle or AST-120 to reduce serum indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels. Bone mechanical properties, bone mineral density (BMD), cortical bone chemical composition, and histomorphometry were determined. Storage modulus was reduced in TPTx-Nx rats compared with rats that underwent TPTx alone. BMD and histomorphometric parameters did not differ between the groups. In terms of cortical bone chemical composition, the mineral/matrix ratio and carbonate substitution was increased, whereas crystallinity was decreased in TPTx-Nx rats. The enzymatic crosslink ratio and pentosidine:matrix ratio were increased in TPTx-Nx rats. AST-120 abolished the effects of TPTx-Nx and decreased the serum IS concentration. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the pentosidine:matrix and mineral:matrix ratios were independent contributors to the storage modulus. In conclusion, the accumulated uremic toxins, including IS, seem to play an important role in deteriorating bone mechanical properties by altering the chemical composition of bone. This mechanism may account for the increased prevalence of hip fracture among patients with CKD.