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Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

Abstract

Although alcohol and smoking have not been established as risk factors for prostate cancer, they are important risk factors for other human cancers and potentially major avoidable factors. Alcohol drinkers and smokers might be less likely to get screening, which might lead to attenuation of the positive association. Here, we investigated the association of alcohol drinking and smoking and prostate cancer according to stage, as well as prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms, in a large prospective study among Japanese men. The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study) was established in 1990 for Cohort I and in 1993 for Cohort II. Subjects were 48,218 men aged 40-69 years who completed a questionnaire, which included their alcohol and smoking habits at baseline, and who were followed until the end of 2010. During 16 years of follow-up, 913 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer; of whom 248 had advanced cases, 635 were organ-localized and 30 were of an undetermined stage. Alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with advanced prostate cancer [nondrinkers: reference, 0-150 g/week: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.82; 150-300 g/week: HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.04-2.19; ≥ 300 g/week: HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.97-2.05, p for trend = 0.02]. The positive association was not substantially changed among cancers detected by subjective symptoms. Smoking was inversely associated with prostate cancer among total subjects, but tended to increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms. In conclusion, abstinence from alcohol and prohibition of smoking might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    International journal of cancer 134:4 2014 Feb 15 pg 971-8

    MeSH

    Adenocarcinoma
    Adult
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Japan
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Neoplasm Staging
    Prognosis
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    Smoking

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23929133

    Citation

    Sawada, Norie, et al. "Alcohol and Smoking and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study." International Journal of Cancer, vol. 134, no. 4, 2014, pp. 971-8.
    Sawada N, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, et al. Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Int J Cancer. 2014;134(4):971-8.
    Sawada, N., Inoue, M., Iwasaki, M., Sasazuki, S., Yamaji, T., Shimazu, T., & Tsugane, S. (2014). Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. International Journal of Cancer, 134(4), pp. 971-8. doi:10.1002/ijc.28423.
    Sawada N, et al. Alcohol and Smoking and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Int J Cancer. 2014 Feb 15;134(4):971-8. PubMed PMID: 23929133.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. AU - Sawada,Norie, AU - Inoue,Manami, AU - Iwasaki,Motoki, AU - Sasazuki,Shizuka, AU - Yamaji,Taiki, AU - Shimazu,Taichi, AU - Tsugane,Shoichiro, Y1 - 2013/09/04/ PY - 2013/05/23/received PY - 2013/07/22/accepted PY - 2013/8/10/entrez PY - 2013/8/10/pubmed PY - 2014/2/22/medline KW - JPHC study KW - alcohol KW - prospective KW - prostate cancer KW - smoking SP - 971 EP - 8 JF - International journal of cancer JO - Int. J. Cancer VL - 134 IS - 4 N2 - Although alcohol and smoking have not been established as risk factors for prostate cancer, they are important risk factors for other human cancers and potentially major avoidable factors. Alcohol drinkers and smokers might be less likely to get screening, which might lead to attenuation of the positive association. Here, we investigated the association of alcohol drinking and smoking and prostate cancer according to stage, as well as prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms, in a large prospective study among Japanese men. The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study) was established in 1990 for Cohort I and in 1993 for Cohort II. Subjects were 48,218 men aged 40-69 years who completed a questionnaire, which included their alcohol and smoking habits at baseline, and who were followed until the end of 2010. During 16 years of follow-up, 913 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer; of whom 248 had advanced cases, 635 were organ-localized and 30 were of an undetermined stage. Alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with advanced prostate cancer [nondrinkers: reference, 0-150 g/week: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.82; 150-300 g/week: HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.04-2.19; ≥ 300 g/week: HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.97-2.05, p for trend = 0.02]. The positive association was not substantially changed among cancers detected by subjective symptoms. Smoking was inversely associated with prostate cancer among total subjects, but tended to increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms. In conclusion, abstinence from alcohol and prohibition of smoking might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer. SN - 1097-0215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23929133/Alcohol_and_smoking_and_subsequent_risk_of_prostate_cancer_in_Japanese_men:_the_Japan_Public_Health_Center_based_prospective_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28423 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -