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Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A. 2013 Nov 22; 1317:246-53.JC

Abstract

Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 μL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7-10mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K](+) ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23932223

Citation

Schrage, Marijn, et al. "Rapid and Simple Neurotoxin-based Distinction of Chinese and Japanese Star Anise By Direct Plant Spray Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography. A, vol. 1317, 2013, pp. 246-53.
Schrage M, Shen Y, Claassen FW, et al. Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1317:246-53.
Schrage, M., Shen, Y., Claassen, F. W., Zuilhof, H., Nielen, M. W., Chen, B., & van Beek, T. A. (2013). Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1317, 246-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.07.072
Schrage M, et al. Rapid and Simple Neurotoxin-based Distinction of Chinese and Japanese Star Anise By Direct Plant Spray Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2013 Nov 22;1317:246-53. PubMed PMID: 23932223.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry. AU - Schrage,Marijn, AU - Shen,Yao, AU - Claassen,Frank W, AU - Zuilhof,Han, AU - Nielen,Michel W F, AU - Chen,Bo, AU - van Beek,Teris A, Y1 - 2013/07/24/ PY - 2013/05/05/received PY - 2013/07/12/revised PY - 2013/07/17/accepted PY - 2013/8/13/entrez PY - 2013/8/13/pubmed PY - 2014/5/29/medline KW - Anisatin KW - DART KW - Food analysis. KW - Leaf spray mass spectrometry KW - Star anise KW - Toxin SP - 246 EP - 53 JF - Journal of chromatography. A JO - J Chromatogr A VL - 1317 N2 - Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 μL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7-10mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K](+) ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages. SN - 1873-3778 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23932223/Rapid_and_simple_neurotoxin_based_distinction_of_Chinese_and_Japanese_star_anise_by_direct_plant_spray_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9673(13)01132-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -