Balloon dilation in the management of severe airway stenosis in children and adolescents.J Pediatr Surg 2013; 48(8):1676-81JP
Children and adolescents with airway stenosis pose a clinical challenge. Recently, balloon dilation has been described, primarily for the treatment of early, immature, less severe airway stenosis. We describe our experience with 8 children and adolescents managed with balloon dilation, including severe, mature subglottic and tracheal stenosis.
This is a case series of 8 children and adolescents with acquired subglottic and tracheal stenosis treated by the primary author with balloon dilation between August 2006 and April 2010 at an academic tertiary care center. In the four patients who were tracheotomy-dependent at the time of presentation, suprastomal stents or Montgomery T-tubes were used. In 1 patient with 99% subglottic stenosis (SGS), balloon dilation and stenting were used to create a lumen prior to laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR).
All 4 patients with tracheotomy were decannulated. The remaining 4 patients were successfully managed without tracheotomy.
Mature, severe laryngeal and tracheal stenosis in pediatric patients can be successfully managed with balloon dilation. In the most severe cases with prior tracheotomy, stenting is necessary. Balloon dilation with stenting can also facilitate LTR. In patients without prior tracheotomy, tracheotomy and stenting can often be safely avoided with appropriate postoperative management.