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Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 98(4):1066-83AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The association between intake of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive.

OBJECTIVE

We conducted an updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of dairy product intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN

We searched the PubMed database for prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of dairy product intake and risk of type 2 diabetes up to 5 June 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by use of a random-effects model.

RESULTS

Seventeen cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. In the dose-response analysis, the summary RRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.87, 0.99; I(2) = 33%) per 400 g total dairy products/d (n = 12), 0.98 (0.94, 1.03; I(2) = 8%) per 200 g high-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.91 (0.86, 0.96; I(2) = 40%) per 200 g low-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.87 (0.72, 1.04; I(2) = 94%) per 200 g milk/d (n = 7), 0.92 (0.86, 0.99; I(2) = 0%) per 50 g cheese/d (n = 8), and 0.78 (0.60, 1.02; I(2) = 70%) per 200 g yogurt/d (n = 7). Nonlinear inverse associations were observed for total dairy products (P-nonlinearity < 0.0001), low-fat dairy products (P-nonlinearity = 0.06), cheese (P-nonlinearity = 0.05), and yogurt (P-nonlinearity = 0.004), and there was a flattening of the curve at higher intakes.

CONCLUSIONS

This meta-analysis suggests that there is a significant inverse association between intakes of dairy products, low-fat dairy products, and cheese and risk of type 2 diabetes. Any additional studies should assess the association between other specific types of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes and adjust for more confounding factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23945722

Citation

Aune, Dagfinn, et al. "Dairy Products and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Dose-response Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 98, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1066-83.
Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, et al. Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1066-83.
Aune, D., Norat, T., Romundstad, P., & Vatten, L. J. (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(4), pp. 1066-83. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030.
Aune D, et al. Dairy Products and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Dose-response Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1066-83. PubMed PMID: 23945722.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. AU - Aune,Dagfinn, AU - Norat,Teresa, AU - Romundstad,Pål, AU - Vatten,Lars J, Y1 - 2013/08/14/ PY - 2013/8/16/entrez PY - 2013/8/16/pubmed PY - 2013/11/16/medline SP - 1066 EP - 83 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 98 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The association between intake of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. OBJECTIVE: We conducted an updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of dairy product intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: We searched the PubMed database for prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of dairy product intake and risk of type 2 diabetes up to 5 June 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by use of a random-effects model. RESULTS: Seventeen cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. In the dose-response analysis, the summary RRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.87, 0.99; I(2) = 33%) per 400 g total dairy products/d (n = 12), 0.98 (0.94, 1.03; I(2) = 8%) per 200 g high-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.91 (0.86, 0.96; I(2) = 40%) per 200 g low-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.87 (0.72, 1.04; I(2) = 94%) per 200 g milk/d (n = 7), 0.92 (0.86, 0.99; I(2) = 0%) per 50 g cheese/d (n = 8), and 0.78 (0.60, 1.02; I(2) = 70%) per 200 g yogurt/d (n = 7). Nonlinear inverse associations were observed for total dairy products (P-nonlinearity < 0.0001), low-fat dairy products (P-nonlinearity = 0.06), cheese (P-nonlinearity = 0.05), and yogurt (P-nonlinearity = 0.004), and there was a flattening of the curve at higher intakes. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that there is a significant inverse association between intakes of dairy products, low-fat dairy products, and cheese and risk of type 2 diabetes. Any additional studies should assess the association between other specific types of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes and adjust for more confounding factors. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23945722/Dairy_products_and_the_risk_of_type_2_diabetes:_a_systematic_review_and_dose_response_meta_analysis_of_cohort_studies_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.059030 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -