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Supervised exercise therapy versus non-supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although supervised exercise therapy is considered to be of significant benefit for people with leg pain (peripheral arterial disease (PAD)), implementing supervised exercise programs (SETs) in daily practice has limitations. This is an update of a review first published in 2006.

OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this review was to provide an accurate overview of studies evaluating the effects of supervised versus non-supervised exercise therapy on maximal walking time or distance on a treadmill for people with intermittent claudication.

SEARCH METHODS

For this update, the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched September 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 9). In addition, we handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles for additional trials. No restriction was applied to language of publication.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Randomized clinical trials comparing supervised exercise programs with non-supervised exercise programs (defined as walking advice or a structural home-based exercise program) for people with intermittent claudication. Studies with control groups, which did not receive exercise or walking advice or received usual care (maintained normal physical activity), were excluded.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two review authors (HJPF and BLWB) independently selected trials and extracted data. Three review authors (HJPF, BLWB, and GJL) assessed trial quality, and this was confirmed by two other review authors (MHP and JAWT). For all continuous outcomes, we extracted the number of participants, the mean differences, and the standard deviation. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) outcomes were extracted to assess quality of life. Effect sizes were calculated as the difference in treatment normalized with the standard deviation (standardized mean difference) using a fixed-effect model.

MAIN RESULTS

A total of 14 studies involving a total of 1002 male and female participants with PAD were included in this review. Follow-up ranged from six weeks to 12 months. In general, supervised exercise regimens consisted of three exercise sessions per week. All trials used a treadmill walking test as one of the outcome measures. The overall quality of the included trials was moderate to good, although some trials were small with respect to the number of participants, ranging from 20 to 304.Supervised exercise therapy (SET) showed statistically significant improvement in maximal treadmill walking distance compared with non-supervised exercise therapy regimens, with an overall effect size of 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 0.86) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.64) at three and six months, respectively. This translates to an increase in walking distance of approximately 180 meters that favored the supervised group. SET was still beneficial for maximal and pain-free walking distances at 12 months, but it did not have a significant effect on quality of life parameters.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

SET has statistically significant benefit on treadmill walking distance (maximal and pain-free) compared with non-supervised regimens. However, the clinical relevance of this has not been demonstrated definitively; additional studies are required that focus on quality of life or other disease-specific functional outcomes, such as walking behavior, patient satisfaction, costs, and long-term follow-up. Professionals in the vascular field should make SET available for all patients with intermittent claudication.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Vascular Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Michelangelolaan 2, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 5623 EJ.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23970372

Citation

Fokkenrood, Hugo J P., et al. "Supervised Exercise Therapy Versus Non-supervised Exercise Therapy for Intermittent Claudication." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013, p. CD005263.
Fokkenrood HJ, Bendermacher BL, Lauret GJ, et al. Supervised exercise therapy versus non-supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013.
Fokkenrood, H. J., Bendermacher, B. L., Lauret, G. J., Willigendael, E. M., Prins, M. H., & Teijink, J. A. (2013). Supervised exercise therapy versus non-supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8), CD005263. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005263.pub3
Fokkenrood HJ, et al. Supervised Exercise Therapy Versus Non-supervised Exercise Therapy for Intermittent Claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 23;(8)CD005263. PubMed PMID: 23970372.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Supervised exercise therapy versus non-supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication. AU - Fokkenrood,Hugo J P, AU - Bendermacher,Bianca L W, AU - Lauret,Gert Jan, AU - Willigendael,Edith M, AU - Prins,Martin H, AU - Teijink,Joep A W, Y1 - 2013/08/23/ PY - 2013/8/24/entrez PY - 2013/8/24/pubmed PY - 2014/2/7/medline SP - CD005263 EP - CD005263 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although supervised exercise therapy is considered to be of significant benefit for people with leg pain (peripheral arterial disease (PAD)), implementing supervised exercise programs (SETs) in daily practice has limitations. This is an update of a review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this review was to provide an accurate overview of studies evaluating the effects of supervised versus non-supervised exercise therapy on maximal walking time or distance on a treadmill for people with intermittent claudication. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched September 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 9). In addition, we handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles for additional trials. No restriction was applied to language of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized clinical trials comparing supervised exercise programs with non-supervised exercise programs (defined as walking advice or a structural home-based exercise program) for people with intermittent claudication. Studies with control groups, which did not receive exercise or walking advice or received usual care (maintained normal physical activity), were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (HJPF and BLWB) independently selected trials and extracted data. Three review authors (HJPF, BLWB, and GJL) assessed trial quality, and this was confirmed by two other review authors (MHP and JAWT). For all continuous outcomes, we extracted the number of participants, the mean differences, and the standard deviation. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) outcomes were extracted to assess quality of life. Effect sizes were calculated as the difference in treatment normalized with the standard deviation (standardized mean difference) using a fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving a total of 1002 male and female participants with PAD were included in this review. Follow-up ranged from six weeks to 12 months. In general, supervised exercise regimens consisted of three exercise sessions per week. All trials used a treadmill walking test as one of the outcome measures. The overall quality of the included trials was moderate to good, although some trials were small with respect to the number of participants, ranging from 20 to 304.Supervised exercise therapy (SET) showed statistically significant improvement in maximal treadmill walking distance compared with non-supervised exercise therapy regimens, with an overall effect size of 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 0.86) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.64) at three and six months, respectively. This translates to an increase in walking distance of approximately 180 meters that favored the supervised group. SET was still beneficial for maximal and pain-free walking distances at 12 months, but it did not have a significant effect on quality of life parameters. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: SET has statistically significant benefit on treadmill walking distance (maximal and pain-free) compared with non-supervised regimens. However, the clinical relevance of this has not been demonstrated definitively; additional studies are required that focus on quality of life or other disease-specific functional outcomes, such as walking behavior, patient satisfaction, costs, and long-term follow-up. Professionals in the vascular field should make SET available for all patients with intermittent claudication. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23970372/Supervised_exercise_therapy_versus_non_supervised_exercise_therapy_for_intermittent_claudication_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005263.pub3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -