Antiepileptic drugs and breastfeeding.Ital J Pediatr 2013; 39:50IJ
This review provides a synopsis for clinicians on the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the breastfeeding mother.
For each AED, we collected all retrievable data from Hale's "Medications and Mother Milk" (2012), from the LactMed database (2013) of the National Library of Medicine, and from a MedLine Search of relevant studies in the past 10 years.
Older AEDs, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone are considered to have a good level of safety during lactation, due to the long term clinical experience and the consequent amount of available data from the scientific literature. On the contrary, fewer data are available on the use of new AEDs. Therefore, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, tiagabine, pregabalin, leviracetam and topiramate are compatible with breastfeeding with a less documented safety profile. Ethosuximide, zonisamide and the continue use of clonazepam and diazepam are contraindicated during breastfeeding.
Although the current available advice on the use of AEDs during breastfeeding, given by different accredited sources, present some contradictions, most AEDs can be considered safe according to our review.