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Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics.
Exp Gerontol. 2013 Nov; 48(11):1351-61.EG

Abstract

Muscle adaptations can be induced by high-resistance exercise. Despite being potentially more suitable for older adults, low-resistance exercise protocols have been less investigated. We compared the effects of high- and low-resistance training on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Fifty-six older adults were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)), LOW (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1RM), or LOW+ (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1RM, followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% of 1RM). All protocols ended with muscle failure. Leg press and leg extension of 1RM were measured at baseline and post intervention and before the first training session in weeks 5 and 9. At baseline and post intervention, muscle volume (MV) was measured by CT-scan. A Biodex dynamometer evaluated knee extensor static peak torque in different knee angles (PT(stat90°), PT(stat120°), PT(stat150°)), dynamic peak torque at different speeds (PT(dyn60°s)(-1), PT(dyn180°s)(-1), PT(dyn240°s)(-1)), and speed of movement at 20% (S20), 40% (S40), and 60% (S60) of PTstat90°. HIGH and LOW+ resulted in greater improvements in 1RM strength than LOW (p<0.05). These differences were already apparent after week 5. Similar gains were found between groups in MV, PT(stat), PT(dyn60°s)(-1), and PT(dyn180°s)(-1). No changes were reported in speed of movement. HIGH tended to improve PT(dyn240°s)(-1) more than LOW or LOW+ (p=0.064). In conclusion, high- and low-resistance exercises ending with muscle failure may be similarly effective for hypertrophy. High-resistance training led to a higher increase in 1RM strength than low-resistance training (20% of 1RM), but this difference disappeared when using a mixed low-resistance protocol in which the resistance was intensified within a single exercise set (40% of 1RM). Our findings support the need for more research on low-resistance programs in older age, in particular long-term training studies and studies focusing on residual effects after training cessation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Physical Activity, Sports and Health Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: evelien.vanroie@faber.kuleuven.be.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23999311

Citation

Van Roie, Evelien, et al. "Strength Training at High Versus Low External Resistance in Older Adults: Effects On Muscle Volume, Muscle Strength, and Force-velocity Characteristics." Experimental Gerontology, vol. 48, no. 11, 2013, pp. 1351-61.
Van Roie E, Delecluse C, Coudyzer W, et al. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(11):1351-61.
Van Roie, E., Delecluse, C., Coudyzer, W., Boonen, S., & Bautmans, I. (2013). Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Experimental Gerontology, 48(11), 1351-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2013.08.010
Van Roie E, et al. Strength Training at High Versus Low External Resistance in Older Adults: Effects On Muscle Volume, Muscle Strength, and Force-velocity Characteristics. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(11):1351-61. PubMed PMID: 23999311.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. AU - Van Roie,Evelien, AU - Delecluse,Christophe, AU - Coudyzer,Walter, AU - Boonen,Steven, AU - Bautmans,Ivan, Y1 - 2013/08/30/ PY - 2013/05/13/received PY - 2013/07/18/revised PY - 2013/08/21/accepted PY - 2013/9/4/entrez PY - 2013/9/4/pubmed PY - 2014/6/3/medline KW - Elderly KW - Muscle fatigue KW - Muscle hypertrophy KW - Resistance training KW - Training load SP - 1351 EP - 61 JF - Experimental gerontology JO - Exp. Gerontol. VL - 48 IS - 11 N2 - Muscle adaptations can be induced by high-resistance exercise. Despite being potentially more suitable for older adults, low-resistance exercise protocols have been less investigated. We compared the effects of high- and low-resistance training on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Fifty-six older adults were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)), LOW (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1RM), or LOW+ (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1RM, followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% of 1RM). All protocols ended with muscle failure. Leg press and leg extension of 1RM were measured at baseline and post intervention and before the first training session in weeks 5 and 9. At baseline and post intervention, muscle volume (MV) was measured by CT-scan. A Biodex dynamometer evaluated knee extensor static peak torque in different knee angles (PT(stat90°), PT(stat120°), PT(stat150°)), dynamic peak torque at different speeds (PT(dyn60°s)(-1), PT(dyn180°s)(-1), PT(dyn240°s)(-1)), and speed of movement at 20% (S20), 40% (S40), and 60% (S60) of PTstat90°. HIGH and LOW+ resulted in greater improvements in 1RM strength than LOW (p<0.05). These differences were already apparent after week 5. Similar gains were found between groups in MV, PT(stat), PT(dyn60°s)(-1), and PT(dyn180°s)(-1). No changes were reported in speed of movement. HIGH tended to improve PT(dyn240°s)(-1) more than LOW or LOW+ (p=0.064). In conclusion, high- and low-resistance exercises ending with muscle failure may be similarly effective for hypertrophy. High-resistance training led to a higher increase in 1RM strength than low-resistance training (20% of 1RM), but this difference disappeared when using a mixed low-resistance protocol in which the resistance was intensified within a single exercise set (40% of 1RM). Our findings support the need for more research on low-resistance programs in older age, in particular long-term training studies and studies focusing on residual effects after training cessation. SN - 1873-6815 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23999311/Strength_training_at_high_versus_low_external_resistance_in_older_adults:_effects_on_muscle_volume_muscle_strength_and_force_velocity_characteristics_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0531-5565(13)00273-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -