Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 May; 20(5):453-8.CM
Observational studies have reported an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage; however, clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation are lacking. To assess the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on persistent S. aureus nasal carriage we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 322 healthy adults. Participants were given an oral dose of either 200 000 IU vitamin D3 for each of 2 months, followed by 100 000 IU monthly or placebo in an identical dosing regimen, for a total of 18 months. Nasal swabs for S. aureus culture and serum for 25OHD measurement were obtained at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months of study. The mean baseline concentration of 25OHD was 72 nM (SD 22 nM). Vitamin D3 supplementation increased 25OHD levels which were maintained at >120 nM throughout the study. Nasal colonization by S. aureus was found in 31% of participants at baseline. Persistent carriage, defined as those that had positive S. aureus nasal cultures for all post-baseline swabs, occurred in 20% of the participants but vitamin D3 supplementation was not associated with a reduction in persistent carriage (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.63-3.06). Risk factor analysis showed that only gender was significantly associated with carriage, where women were less likely to be carriers than men (relative risk 0.83, 95% CI 0.54-0.99). Serum 25OHD concentrations were not associated with the risk of carriage. In conclusion, monthly administration of 100 000 IU of vitamin D3 did not reduce persistent S. aureus nasal carriage.