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Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum are underutilized dietary fibers of interest to the food industry. However, because the ability of soluble fibers to modulate postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism has been related to their viscous effects, the utility of these and other low-viscosity soluble fibers remains unproven. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum concentration, product viscosity, and the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in the context of glucose solutions as well as fluid and gelled dairy products.

METHODS

Twelve healthy males participated in a randomized crossover postprandial study in which they visited the laboratory following overnight fasts on 11 occasions to consume one of 11 study treatments, each consisting of 50 g available carbohydrates. The study treatments included a glucose reference (in duplicate), glucose solutions containing soy-soluble polysaccharides (6%), flaxseed gum (0.7%), or guar gum (0.23%), all matched for an apparent viscosity of 61 mPa·s at 50 s⁻¹, as well as dairy-based beverages and puddings with 0% or 1% soluble fiber added. Blood samples were collected at fasting and up to 2 hours postprandially for determination of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration, and time-to-peak values as well as glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) were calculated.

RESULTS

Fiber fortification of a 50 g glucose solution had no effect on postprandial blood glucose or insulin levels, even at a high concentration (i.e., 6% soy-soluble polysaccharides). Glucose AUC and GI values for the dairy-based beverage (p < 0.05) and pudding (p < 0.01) controls were significantly lower than the glucose reference. Glucose AUC and GI values for the soy-soluble polysaccharide-fortified dairy products (p < 0.01) and flaxseed gum-fortified dairy products (p < 0.001) were significantly lower than the glucose reference. No significant differences were observed between the fiber-fortified fluid and gelled dairy-based study treatments and no significant differences were observed in terms of the insulin AUC, II, and peak insulin concentration between any of the dairy products.

CONCLUSIONS

All dairy products had lower glycemic responses relative to the reference, with no effect of beverage versus pudding matrix observed and minimal impact of 1% flaxseed gum or soy-soluble polysaccharides. Product apparent viscosity, but not fiber concentration, was significantly and inversely correlated with glucose AUC and GI.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    a Department of Food Science , University of Guelph , Guelph , Ontario , CANADA.

    , , ,

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    MeSH

    Adult
    Area Under Curve
    Beverages
    Blood Glucose
    Body Height
    Body Mass Index
    Body Weight
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dairy Products
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fiber
    Double-Blind Method
    Fasting
    Flax
    Galactans
    Glucose
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Insulin
    Male
    Mannans
    Plant Gums
    Postprandial Period
    Rheology
    Soybeans
    Viscosity
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24015717

    Citation

    Au, Marco M C., et al. "Effects of Soy-soluble Fiber and Flaxseed Gum On the Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Glucose Solutions and Dairy Products in Healthy Adult Males." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 32, no. 2, 2013, pp. 98-110.
    Au MM, Goff HD, Kisch JA, et al. Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(2):98-110.
    Au, M. M., Goff, H. D., Kisch, J. A., Coulson, A., & Wright, A. J. (2013). Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 32(2), pp. 98-110. doi:10.1080/07315724.2013.767579.
    Au MM, et al. Effects of Soy-soluble Fiber and Flaxseed Gum On the Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Glucose Solutions and Dairy Products in Healthy Adult Males. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(2):98-110. PubMed PMID: 24015717.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males. AU - Au,Marco M C, AU - Goff,H Douglas, AU - Kisch,Julie A, AU - Coulson,Alex, AU - Wright,Amanda J, PY - 2013/9/11/entrez PY - 2013/9/11/pubmed PY - 2014/3/29/medline SP - 98 EP - 110 JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition JO - J Am Coll Nutr VL - 32 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum are underutilized dietary fibers of interest to the food industry. However, because the ability of soluble fibers to modulate postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism has been related to their viscous effects, the utility of these and other low-viscosity soluble fibers remains unproven. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum concentration, product viscosity, and the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in the context of glucose solutions as well as fluid and gelled dairy products. METHODS: Twelve healthy males participated in a randomized crossover postprandial study in which they visited the laboratory following overnight fasts on 11 occasions to consume one of 11 study treatments, each consisting of 50 g available carbohydrates. The study treatments included a glucose reference (in duplicate), glucose solutions containing soy-soluble polysaccharides (6%), flaxseed gum (0.7%), or guar gum (0.23%), all matched for an apparent viscosity of 61 mPa·s at 50 s⁻¹, as well as dairy-based beverages and puddings with 0% or 1% soluble fiber added. Blood samples were collected at fasting and up to 2 hours postprandially for determination of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration, and time-to-peak values as well as glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) were calculated. RESULTS: Fiber fortification of a 50 g glucose solution had no effect on postprandial blood glucose or insulin levels, even at a high concentration (i.e., 6% soy-soluble polysaccharides). Glucose AUC and GI values for the dairy-based beverage (p < 0.05) and pudding (p < 0.01) controls were significantly lower than the glucose reference. Glucose AUC and GI values for the soy-soluble polysaccharide-fortified dairy products (p < 0.01) and flaxseed gum-fortified dairy products (p < 0.001) were significantly lower than the glucose reference. No significant differences were observed between the fiber-fortified fluid and gelled dairy-based study treatments and no significant differences were observed in terms of the insulin AUC, II, and peak insulin concentration between any of the dairy products. CONCLUSIONS: All dairy products had lower glycemic responses relative to the reference, with no effect of beverage versus pudding matrix observed and minimal impact of 1% flaxseed gum or soy-soluble polysaccharides. Product apparent viscosity, but not fiber concentration, was significantly and inversely correlated with glucose AUC and GI. SN - 1541-1087 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24015717/Effects_of_soy_soluble_fiber_and_flaxseed_gum_on_the_glycemic_and_insulinemic_responses_to_glucose_solutions_and_dairy_products_in_healthy_adult_males_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.2013.767579 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -