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Comparative effects of carbohydrate versus fat restriction on serum levels of adipocytokines, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function among women with the metabolic syndrome: a randomized cross-over clinical trial.
Ann Nutr Metab 2013; 63(1-2):159-67AN

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Despite the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets in the management of metabolic syndrome (MetS), it remains unknown if these favorable effects are mediated through changes in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to assess the effects of moderate substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates on serum levels of adipocytokines, inflammatory indices, and biomarkers of endothelial function among women with the MetS.

METHODS

In a randomized cross-over clinical trial, 30 overweight or obese (BMI >25) women with the MetS were randomly allocated to follow either a high-carbohydrate (HC) (60-65% carbohydrates, 20-25% fats) diet or a moderately restricted carbohydrate (MRC) (43-47% carbohydrate, 36-40% fats) diet, each for 6 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, individuals were switched to the alternate diet for an additional 6 weeks. In a fasted state, markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), high-sensitivity interleukin-6 (hs-IL-6), high-sensitivity tumor necrosis factor-α (hs-TNF-α), and serum amyloid A (SAA)], endothelial function [E-selectin, serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1)], and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were measured in both study arms at baseline and after 6 weeks.

RESULTS

Consumption of an HC diet was associated with increased levels of SAA (3.27 ± 1.22 μg/ml) and decreased levels of adiponectin (-1.68 ± 2.30 ng/ml), while consumption of an MRC diet did not result in such unfavorable effects. Serum concentrations of leptin were reduced by the HC diet (p = 0.02), while they were not affected by the MRC diet. Changes in serum leptin levels were not significant between the two diets (p = 0.09). Serum concentrations of hs-CRP, hs-TNF-α, and IL-6 were not influenced by either diet. No significant differences between the two diets were found in terms of their effect on sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations. Adherence to both diets resulted in a 9 ng/ml decrease in serum E-selectin levels (p < 0.05 for both).

CONCLUSIONS

Partial replacement of dietary carbohydrates by unsaturated fats prevents the increased levels of markers of systemic inflammation among women with the MetS.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24021709

Citation

Rajaie, Somayeh, et al. "Comparative Effects of Carbohydrate Versus Fat Restriction On Serum Levels of Adipocytokines, Markers of Inflammation, and Endothelial Function Among Women With the Metabolic Syndrome: a Randomized Cross-over Clinical Trial." Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 63, no. 1-2, 2013, pp. 159-67.
Rajaie S, Azadbakht L, Saneei P, et al. Comparative effects of carbohydrate versus fat restriction on serum levels of adipocytokines, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function among women with the metabolic syndrome: a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013;63(1-2):159-67.
Rajaie, S., Azadbakht, L., Saneei, P., Khazaei, M., & Esmaillzadeh, A. (2013). Comparative effects of carbohydrate versus fat restriction on serum levels of adipocytokines, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function among women with the metabolic syndrome: a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 63(1-2), pp. 159-67. doi:10.1159/000354868.
Rajaie S, et al. Comparative Effects of Carbohydrate Versus Fat Restriction On Serum Levels of Adipocytokines, Markers of Inflammation, and Endothelial Function Among Women With the Metabolic Syndrome: a Randomized Cross-over Clinical Trial. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013;63(1-2):159-67. PubMed PMID: 24021709.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative effects of carbohydrate versus fat restriction on serum levels of adipocytokines, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function among women with the metabolic syndrome: a randomized cross-over clinical trial. AU - Rajaie,Somayeh, AU - Azadbakht,Leila, AU - Saneei,Parvaneh, AU - Khazaei,Majid, AU - Esmaillzadeh,Ahmad, Y1 - 2013/09/10/ PY - 2013/03/10/received PY - 2013/08/08/accepted PY - 2013/9/12/entrez PY - 2013/9/12/pubmed PY - 2014/4/17/medline SP - 159 EP - 67 JF - Annals of nutrition & metabolism JO - Ann. Nutr. Metab. VL - 63 IS - 1-2 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets in the management of metabolic syndrome (MetS), it remains unknown if these favorable effects are mediated through changes in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to assess the effects of moderate substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates on serum levels of adipocytokines, inflammatory indices, and biomarkers of endothelial function among women with the MetS. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over clinical trial, 30 overweight or obese (BMI >25) women with the MetS were randomly allocated to follow either a high-carbohydrate (HC) (60-65% carbohydrates, 20-25% fats) diet or a moderately restricted carbohydrate (MRC) (43-47% carbohydrate, 36-40% fats) diet, each for 6 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, individuals were switched to the alternate diet for an additional 6 weeks. In a fasted state, markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), high-sensitivity interleukin-6 (hs-IL-6), high-sensitivity tumor necrosis factor-α (hs-TNF-α), and serum amyloid A (SAA)], endothelial function [E-selectin, serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1)], and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were measured in both study arms at baseline and after 6 weeks. RESULTS: Consumption of an HC diet was associated with increased levels of SAA (3.27 ± 1.22 μg/ml) and decreased levels of adiponectin (-1.68 ± 2.30 ng/ml), while consumption of an MRC diet did not result in such unfavorable effects. Serum concentrations of leptin were reduced by the HC diet (p = 0.02), while they were not affected by the MRC diet. Changes in serum leptin levels were not significant between the two diets (p = 0.09). Serum concentrations of hs-CRP, hs-TNF-α, and IL-6 were not influenced by either diet. No significant differences between the two diets were found in terms of their effect on sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations. Adherence to both diets resulted in a 9 ng/ml decrease in serum E-selectin levels (p < 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Partial replacement of dietary carbohydrates by unsaturated fats prevents the increased levels of markers of systemic inflammation among women with the MetS. SN - 1421-9697 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24021709/Comparative_effects_of_carbohydrate_versus_fat_restriction_on_serum_levels_of_adipocytokines_markers_of_inflammation_and_endothelial_function_among_women_with_the_metabolic_syndrome:_a_randomized_cross_over_clinical_trial_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000354868 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -