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Other people as means to a safe end: vicarious extinction blocks the return of learned fear.
Psychol Sci. 2013 Nov 01; 24(11):2182-90.PS

Abstract

Information about what is dangerous and safe in the environment is often transferred from other individuals through social forms of learning, such as observation. Past research has focused on the observational, or vicarious, acquisition of fears, but little is known about how social information can promote safety learning. To address this issue, we studied the effects of vicarious-extinction learning on the recovery of conditioned fear. Compared with a standard extinction procedure, vicarious extinction promoted better extinction and effectively blocked the return of previously learned fear. We confirmed that these effects could not be attributed to the presence of a learning model per se but were specifically driven by the model's experience of safety. Our results confirm that vicarious and direct emotional learning share important characteristics but that social-safety information promotes superior down-regulation of learned fear. These findings have implications for emotional learning, social-affective processes, and clinical practice.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Karolinska Institutet.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24022651

Citation

Golkar, Armita, et al. "Other People as Means to a Safe End: Vicarious Extinction Blocks the Return of Learned Fear." Psychological Science, vol. 24, no. 11, 2013, pp. 2182-90.
Golkar A, Selbing I, Flygare O, et al. Other people as means to a safe end: vicarious extinction blocks the return of learned fear. Psychol Sci. 2013;24(11):2182-90.
Golkar, A., Selbing, I., Flygare, O., Ohman, A., & Olsson, A. (2013). Other people as means to a safe end: vicarious extinction blocks the return of learned fear. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2182-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613489890
Golkar A, et al. Other People as Means to a Safe End: Vicarious Extinction Blocks the Return of Learned Fear. Psychol Sci. 2013 Nov 1;24(11):2182-90. PubMed PMID: 24022651.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Other people as means to a safe end: vicarious extinction blocks the return of learned fear. AU - Golkar,Armita, AU - Selbing,Ida, AU - Flygare,Oskar, AU - Ohman,Arne, AU - Olsson,Andreas, Y1 - 2013/09/10/ PY - 2013/9/12/entrez PY - 2013/9/12/pubmed PY - 2014/8/27/medline KW - emotions KW - extinction KW - fear KW - learning KW - observational learning KW - reinstatement KW - social cognition KW - vicarious learning SP - 2182 EP - 90 JF - Psychological science JO - Psychol Sci VL - 24 IS - 11 N2 - Information about what is dangerous and safe in the environment is often transferred from other individuals through social forms of learning, such as observation. Past research has focused on the observational, or vicarious, acquisition of fears, but little is known about how social information can promote safety learning. To address this issue, we studied the effects of vicarious-extinction learning on the recovery of conditioned fear. Compared with a standard extinction procedure, vicarious extinction promoted better extinction and effectively blocked the return of previously learned fear. We confirmed that these effects could not be attributed to the presence of a learning model per se but were specifically driven by the model's experience of safety. Our results confirm that vicarious and direct emotional learning share important characteristics but that social-safety information promotes superior down-regulation of learned fear. These findings have implications for emotional learning, social-affective processes, and clinical practice. SN - 1467-9280 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24022651/Other_people_as_means_to_a_safe_end:_vicarious_extinction_blocks_the_return_of_learned_fear_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797613489890?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -