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Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables.

RESULTS

During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.24).

CONCLUSIONS

Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

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    Source

    PloS one 8:9 2013 pg e72715

    MeSH

    Aged
    Animals
    Calcium, Dietary
    Cheese
    Colorectal Neoplasms
    Dairy Products
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Milk
    Prospective Studies
    Yogurt

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24023767

    Citation

    Murphy, Neil, et al. "Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)." PloS One, vol. 8, no. 9, 2013, pp. e72715.
    Murphy N, Norat T, Ferrari P, et al. Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PLoS ONE. 2013;8(9):e72715.
    Murphy, N., Norat, T., Ferrari, P., Jenab, M., Bueno-de-Mesquita, B., Skeie, G., ... Riboli, E. (2013). Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PloS One, 8(9), pp. e72715. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072715.
    Murphy N, et al. Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PLoS ONE. 2013;8(9):e72715. PubMed PMID: 24023767.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). AU - Murphy,Neil, AU - Norat,Teresa, AU - Ferrari,Pietro, AU - Jenab,Mazda, AU - Bueno-de-Mesquita,Bas, AU - Skeie,Guri, AU - Olsen,Anja, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Dahm,Christina C, AU - Overvad,Kim, AU - Boutron-Ruault,Marie Christine, AU - Clavel-Chapelon,Françoise, AU - Nailler,Laura, AU - Kaaks,Rudolf, AU - Teucher,Birgit, AU - Boeing,Heiner, AU - Bergmann,Manuela M, AU - Trichopoulou,Antonia, AU - Lagiou,Pagona, AU - Trichopoulos,Dimitrios, AU - Palli,Domenico, AU - Pala,Valeria, AU - Tumino,Rosario, AU - Vineis,Paolo, AU - Panico,Salvatore, AU - Peeters,Petra H M, AU - Dik,Vincent K, AU - Weiderpass,Elisabete, AU - Lund,Eiliv, AU - Garcia,Jose Ramon Quiros, AU - Zamora-Ros,Raul, AU - Pérez,Maria José Sánchez, AU - Dorronsoro,Miren, AU - Navarro,Carmen, AU - Ardanaz,Eva, AU - Manjer,Jonas, AU - Almquist,Martin, AU - Johansson,Ingegerd, AU - Palmqvist,Richard, AU - Khaw,Kay-Tee, AU - Wareham,Nick, AU - Key,Timothy J, AU - Crowe,Francesca L, AU - Fedirko,Veronika, AU - Gunter,Marc J, AU - Riboli,Elio, Y1 - 2013/09/02/ PY - 2013/02/15/received PY - 2013/07/14/accepted PY - 2013/9/12/entrez PY - 2013/9/12/pubmed PY - 2014/4/3/medline SP - e72715 EP - e72715 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 8 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. RESULTS: During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24023767/Consumption_of_dairy_products_and_colorectal_cancer_in_the_European_Prospective_Investigation_into_Cancer_and_Nutrition__EPIC__ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072715 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -