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Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal the causes of high tropical amphibian diversity.
Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Nov 07; 280(1770):20131622.PB

Abstract

Many groups show higher species richness in tropical regions but the underlying causes remain unclear. Despite many competing hypotheses to explain latitudinal diversity gradients, only three processes can directly change species richness across regions: speciation, extinction and dispersal. These processes can be addressed most powerfully using large-scale phylogenetic approaches, but most previous studies have focused on small groups and recent time scales, or did not separate speciation and extinction rates. We investigate the origins of high tropical diversity in amphibians, applying new phylogenetic comparative methods to a tree of 2871 species. Our results show that high tropical diversity is explained by higher speciation in the tropics, higher extinction in temperate regions and limited dispersal out of the tropics compared with colonization of the tropics from temperate regions. These patterns are strongly associated with climate-related variables such as temperature, precipitation and ecosystem energy. Results from models of diversity dependence in speciation rate suggest that temperate clades may have lower carrying capacities and may be more saturated (closer to carrying capacity) than tropical clades. Furthermore, we estimate strikingly low tropical extinction rates over geological time scales, in stark contrast to the dramatic losses of diversity occurring in tropical regions presently.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, , 2023 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, , Tucson, AZ 85721-0088, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24026818

Citation

Pyron, R Alexander, and John J. Wiens. "Large-scale Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal the Causes of High Tropical Amphibian Diversity." Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol. 280, no. 1770, 2013, p. 20131622.
Pyron RA, Wiens JJ. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal the causes of high tropical amphibian diversity. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280(1770):20131622.
Pyron, R. A., & Wiens, J. J. (2013). Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal the causes of high tropical amphibian diversity. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 280(1770), 20131622. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.1622
Pyron RA, Wiens JJ. Large-scale Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal the Causes of High Tropical Amphibian Diversity. Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Nov 7;280(1770):20131622. PubMed PMID: 24026818.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal the causes of high tropical amphibian diversity. AU - Pyron,R Alexander, AU - Wiens,John J, Y1 - 2013/09/11/ PY - 2013/9/13/entrez PY - 2013/9/13/pubmed PY - 2014/4/5/medline KW - amphibians KW - diversification KW - extinction KW - latitudinal gradients KW - speciation KW - species richness SP - 20131622 EP - 20131622 JF - Proceedings. Biological sciences JO - Proc. Biol. Sci. VL - 280 IS - 1770 N2 - Many groups show higher species richness in tropical regions but the underlying causes remain unclear. Despite many competing hypotheses to explain latitudinal diversity gradients, only three processes can directly change species richness across regions: speciation, extinction and dispersal. These processes can be addressed most powerfully using large-scale phylogenetic approaches, but most previous studies have focused on small groups and recent time scales, or did not separate speciation and extinction rates. We investigate the origins of high tropical diversity in amphibians, applying new phylogenetic comparative methods to a tree of 2871 species. Our results show that high tropical diversity is explained by higher speciation in the tropics, higher extinction in temperate regions and limited dispersal out of the tropics compared with colonization of the tropics from temperate regions. These patterns are strongly associated with climate-related variables such as temperature, precipitation and ecosystem energy. Results from models of diversity dependence in speciation rate suggest that temperate clades may have lower carrying capacities and may be more saturated (closer to carrying capacity) than tropical clades. Furthermore, we estimate strikingly low tropical extinction rates over geological time scales, in stark contrast to the dramatic losses of diversity occurring in tropical regions presently. SN - 1471-2954 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24026818/Large_scale_phylogenetic_analyses_reveal_the_causes_of_high_tropical_amphibian_diversity_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2013.1622?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -