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Lead, mercury and cadmium in umbilical cord blood and its association with parental epidemiological variables and birth factors.
BMC Public Health. 2013 Sep 12; 13:841.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In Spain, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure to heavy metals. The objective of this study was to describe lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in blood from a sample of newborn-mother-father trios, as well as to investigate the association between metals in cord blood and parental variables. We also explored the relationship between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth.

METHODS

Metal correlations among family members were assessed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parental variables and log-transformed cord blood lead and cord blood mercury concentrations. In the case of cadmium, tobit regression was used due to the existence of samples below the detection limit. The association between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth was evaluated using linear regression.

RESULTS

Geometric means for lead, mercury and cadmium were 14.09 μg/L, 6.72 μg/L and 0.27 μg/L in newborns; 19.80 μg/L, 3.90 μg/L and 0.53 μg/L in pregnant women; and 33.00 μg/L, 5.38 μg/L and 0.49 μg/L in men. Positive correlations were found between metal concentrations among members of the trio. Lead and cadmium concentrations were 15% and 22% higher in newborns from mothers who smoked during pregnancy, while mercury concentrations were 25% higher in newborns from mothers with greater fish intake. Cord-blood lead levels showed seasonal periodicity, with lower concentrations observed in winter. Cord blood cadmium concentrations over 0.29 μg/L were associated with lower 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores.

CONCLUSIONS

These results reinforce the need to establish biomonitoring programs in Spain, and provide support for tobacco smoke and fish consumption as important preventable sources of heavy metal exposure in newborns. Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure might be deleterious to fetal development.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental and Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health (Instituto de Salud Carlos III - ISCIII), Madrid, Spain. esthergge@gmail.com.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24028648

Citation

García-Esquinas, Esther, et al. "Lead, Mercury and Cadmium in Umbilical Cord Blood and Its Association With Parental Epidemiological Variables and Birth Factors." BMC Public Health, vol. 13, 2013, p. 841.
García-Esquinas E, Pérez-Gómez B, Fernández-Navarro P, et al. Lead, mercury and cadmium in umbilical cord blood and its association with parental epidemiological variables and birth factors. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:841.
García-Esquinas, E., Pérez-Gómez, B., Fernández-Navarro, P., Fernández, M. A., de Paz, C., Pérez-Meixeira, A. M., Gil, E., Iriso, A., Sanz, J. C., Astray, J., Cisneros, M., de Santos, A., Asensio, Á., García-Sagredo, J. M., García, J. F., Vioque, J., López-Abente, G., Pollán, M., González, M. J., ... Aragonés, N. (2013). Lead, mercury and cadmium in umbilical cord blood and its association with parental epidemiological variables and birth factors. BMC Public Health, 13, 841. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-841
García-Esquinas E, et al. Lead, Mercury and Cadmium in Umbilical Cord Blood and Its Association With Parental Epidemiological Variables and Birth Factors. BMC Public Health. 2013 Sep 12;13:841. PubMed PMID: 24028648.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Lead, mercury and cadmium in umbilical cord blood and its association with parental epidemiological variables and birth factors. AU - García-Esquinas,Esther, AU - Pérez-Gómez,Beatriz, AU - Fernández-Navarro,Pablo, AU - Fernández,Mario Antonio, AU - de Paz,Concha, AU - Pérez-Meixeira,Ana María, AU - Gil,Elisa, AU - Iriso,Andrés, AU - Sanz,Juan Carlos, AU - Astray,Jenaro, AU - Cisneros,Margot, AU - de Santos,Amparo, AU - Asensio,Ángel, AU - García-Sagredo,José Miguel, AU - García,José Frutos, AU - Vioque,Jesús, AU - López-Abente,Gonzalo, AU - Pollán,Marina, AU - González,María José, AU - Martínez,Mercedes, AU - Aragonés,Nuria, Y1 - 2013/09/12/ PY - 2013/05/14/received PY - 2013/09/05/accepted PY - 2013/9/14/entrez PY - 2013/9/14/pubmed PY - 2014/9/11/medline SP - 841 EP - 841 JF - BMC public health JO - BMC Public Health VL - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: In Spain, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure to heavy metals. The objective of this study was to describe lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in blood from a sample of newborn-mother-father trios, as well as to investigate the association between metals in cord blood and parental variables. We also explored the relationship between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth. METHODS: Metal correlations among family members were assessed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parental variables and log-transformed cord blood lead and cord blood mercury concentrations. In the case of cadmium, tobit regression was used due to the existence of samples below the detection limit. The association between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth was evaluated using linear regression. RESULTS: Geometric means for lead, mercury and cadmium were 14.09 μg/L, 6.72 μg/L and 0.27 μg/L in newborns; 19.80 μg/L, 3.90 μg/L and 0.53 μg/L in pregnant women; and 33.00 μg/L, 5.38 μg/L and 0.49 μg/L in men. Positive correlations were found between metal concentrations among members of the trio. Lead and cadmium concentrations were 15% and 22% higher in newborns from mothers who smoked during pregnancy, while mercury concentrations were 25% higher in newborns from mothers with greater fish intake. Cord-blood lead levels showed seasonal periodicity, with lower concentrations observed in winter. Cord blood cadmium concentrations over 0.29 μg/L were associated with lower 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforce the need to establish biomonitoring programs in Spain, and provide support for tobacco smoke and fish consumption as important preventable sources of heavy metal exposure in newborns. Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure might be deleterious to fetal development. SN - 1471-2458 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24028648/Lead_mercury_and_cadmium_in_umbilical_cord_blood_and_its_association_with_parental_epidemiological_variables_and_birth_factors_ L2 - https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-841 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -