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Cognitive reserve in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014; 20(1):1-7PR

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The concept of cognitive reserve is proposed to explain the mismatch between the degree of pathological changes and their clinical manifestations and has been used to help understand the variation in the rate of cognitive decline and the development of dementias. It is not clear whether this concept applies to cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD).

METHODS

A systematic review was conducted using the most commonly described proxies for cognitive reserve of education, occupation and leisure activities. Thirty four papers were found on education and cognition in PD but there were no studies of the other proxies of reserve. A random effects meta-analysis was used to assess the associations between education and cross-sectional cognitive assessments, longitudinal global cognitive decline and a long term dementia diagnosis.

RESULTS

There was a significant association between higher education and cross-sectional performance of MMSE, global cognition, mild cognitive impairment, attention, executive function, visuospatial function and memory. There was a small but significant association between higher education and a reduced rate of cognitive decline. There was no association with a final dementia diagnosis. There was not enough information to perform an analysis on the rate and timing of transition to dementia.

CONCLUSIONS

Higher levels of education are associated with significantly better cognitive performance and a small but significant slowing in cognitive decline but are not associated with a reduction in long-term dementia in PD. More detailed, standardized, longitudinal studies are required to study conclusively the effects cognitive reserve in PD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Medical Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom; Department of Care of the Elderly, Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Llandudno Hospital, Conwy, United Kingdom. Electronic address: j.v.hindle@bangor.ac.uk.School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24034887

Citation

Hindle, John V., et al. "Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, vol. 20, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-7.
Hindle JV, Martyr A, Clare L. Cognitive reserve in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(1):1-7.
Hindle, J. V., Martyr, A., & Clare, L. (2014). Cognitive reserve in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20(1), pp. 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.08.010.
Hindle JV, Martyr A, Clare L. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(1):1-7. PubMed PMID: 24034887.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cognitive reserve in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Hindle,John V, AU - Martyr,Anthony, AU - Clare,Linda, Y1 - 2013/08/29/ PY - 2013/04/05/received PY - 2013/08/19/revised PY - 2013/08/20/accepted PY - 2013/9/17/entrez PY - 2013/9/17/pubmed PY - 2014/9/13/medline KW - Cognition KW - Cognitive reserve KW - Dementia KW - Education KW - Parkinson's disease SP - 1 EP - 7 JF - Parkinsonism & related disorders JO - Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The concept of cognitive reserve is proposed to explain the mismatch between the degree of pathological changes and their clinical manifestations and has been used to help understand the variation in the rate of cognitive decline and the development of dementias. It is not clear whether this concept applies to cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the most commonly described proxies for cognitive reserve of education, occupation and leisure activities. Thirty four papers were found on education and cognition in PD but there were no studies of the other proxies of reserve. A random effects meta-analysis was used to assess the associations between education and cross-sectional cognitive assessments, longitudinal global cognitive decline and a long term dementia diagnosis. RESULTS: There was a significant association between higher education and cross-sectional performance of MMSE, global cognition, mild cognitive impairment, attention, executive function, visuospatial function and memory. There was a small but significant association between higher education and a reduced rate of cognitive decline. There was no association with a final dementia diagnosis. There was not enough information to perform an analysis on the rate and timing of transition to dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of education are associated with significantly better cognitive performance and a small but significant slowing in cognitive decline but are not associated with a reduction in long-term dementia in PD. More detailed, standardized, longitudinal studies are required to study conclusively the effects cognitive reserve in PD. SN - 1873-5126 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24034887/Cognitive_reserve_in_Parkinson's_disease:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1353-8020(13)00304-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -