Environmental toxins and Parkinson's disease.Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2014; 54:141-64AR
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder that begins in mid to late life and is characterized by motor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and, in many, psychological and cognitive changes. Recent advances have helped delineate pathogenetic mechanisms, yet the cause of PD in most individuals is unknown. Although at least 15 genes and genetic loci have been associated with PD, identified genetic causes are responsible for only a few percent of cases. Epidemiologic studies have found increased risk of PD associated with exposure to environmental toxicants such as pesticides, solvents, metals, and other pollutants, and many of these compounds recapitulate PD pathology in animal models. This review summarizes the environmental toxicology of PD, highlighting the consistency of observations across cellular, animal, and human studies of PD pathogenesis.