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Portal hypertension.
Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1990 Feb; 170(2):177-92.SG

Abstract

The management of both acute and recurrent variceal bleeding continues to be a significant challenge to the clinician. The cause and pathogenesis of portal hypertension has been described. Alcoholic cirrhosis is the most common cause of intrahepatic sinusoidal and postsinusoidal obstruction in the United States. Long term survival depends on rapid institution of an established protocol of surgical management for variceal hemorrhage. A patient who presents with variceal bleeding must be rapidly stabilized with fluid resuscitation, and specific measures, such as the use of vasopressin and balloon tamponade, must be instituted to control hemorrhage so that endoscopy can be used to establish the diagnosis. Sclerotherapy achieves a high rate of success in the acute situation, but if hemorrhage cannot be controlled, percutaneous transhepatic embolization or emergent shunting must be performed, depending on the condition of the patient. Angiography, prior to surgical treatment, is necessary to define venous anatomy and determine portal hemodynamics, both of which provide information vital in choosing the type of shunt. If bleeding is massive and the patient is unstable, H-grafts are most appropriate, for they are technically easier and give excellent short term results. In a stable Child's A or B patient with minor ascites as well as suitable anatomy and hepatopedal flow, DSRS is the procedure of choice because it produces the smallest degree of HE postoperatively and increases the survival rate for nonalcoholics. If this is not feasible or if the surgeon lacks the technical expertise to perform DSRS, PCS is the logical alternative. In view of the data from the series observed in the United States, ablative procedures cannot be recommended at the present for the treatment of variceal bleeding. In the Child's C poor-risk patient, the operative mortality rate is prohibitive, and only nonsurgical means should be used to establish control of bleeding. In the elective situation, the surgical options change. The efficacy of ES as a definitive procedure to control recurrent variceal bleeding is unproved, and rebleeding can be significant; therefore, it cannot be recommended. H-grafts have a prohibitively high rate of long term thrombosis and are also not recommended, and the Linton or proximal splenorenal shunt offers no advantages over conventional portacaval shunting. Moreover, arterialization of the hepatic stumps of the portal vein does not prevent hepatic encephalopathy or alter the survival rate. Both PCS and DSRS prevent rebleeding, yet neither alters the survival rate for alcoholic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Hospital, University of Medicine and Dentistry, Newark, New Jersey.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2405526

Citation

Collini, F J., and B Brener. "Portal Hypertension." Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, vol. 170, no. 2, 1990, pp. 177-92.
Collini FJ, Brener B. Portal hypertension. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1990;170(2):177-92.
Collini, F. J., & Brener, B. (1990). Portal hypertension. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, 170(2), 177-92.
Collini FJ, Brener B. Portal Hypertension. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1990;170(2):177-92. PubMed PMID: 2405526.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Portal hypertension. AU - Collini,F J, AU - Brener,B, PY - 1990/2/1/pubmed PY - 1990/2/1/medline PY - 1990/2/1/entrez SP - 177 EP - 92 JF - Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics JO - Surg Gynecol Obstet VL - 170 IS - 2 N2 - The management of both acute and recurrent variceal bleeding continues to be a significant challenge to the clinician. The cause and pathogenesis of portal hypertension has been described. Alcoholic cirrhosis is the most common cause of intrahepatic sinusoidal and postsinusoidal obstruction in the United States. Long term survival depends on rapid institution of an established protocol of surgical management for variceal hemorrhage. A patient who presents with variceal bleeding must be rapidly stabilized with fluid resuscitation, and specific measures, such as the use of vasopressin and balloon tamponade, must be instituted to control hemorrhage so that endoscopy can be used to establish the diagnosis. Sclerotherapy achieves a high rate of success in the acute situation, but if hemorrhage cannot be controlled, percutaneous transhepatic embolization or emergent shunting must be performed, depending on the condition of the patient. Angiography, prior to surgical treatment, is necessary to define venous anatomy and determine portal hemodynamics, both of which provide information vital in choosing the type of shunt. If bleeding is massive and the patient is unstable, H-grafts are most appropriate, for they are technically easier and give excellent short term results. In a stable Child's A or B patient with minor ascites as well as suitable anatomy and hepatopedal flow, DSRS is the procedure of choice because it produces the smallest degree of HE postoperatively and increases the survival rate for nonalcoholics. If this is not feasible or if the surgeon lacks the technical expertise to perform DSRS, PCS is the logical alternative. In view of the data from the series observed in the United States, ablative procedures cannot be recommended at the present for the treatment of variceal bleeding. In the Child's C poor-risk patient, the operative mortality rate is prohibitive, and only nonsurgical means should be used to establish control of bleeding. In the elective situation, the surgical options change. The efficacy of ES as a definitive procedure to control recurrent variceal bleeding is unproved, and rebleeding can be significant; therefore, it cannot be recommended. H-grafts have a prohibitively high rate of long term thrombosis and are also not recommended, and the Linton or proximal splenorenal shunt offers no advantages over conventional portacaval shunting. Moreover, arterialization of the hepatic stumps of the portal vein does not prevent hepatic encephalopathy or alter the survival rate. Both PCS and DSRS prevent rebleeding, yet neither alters the survival rate for alcoholic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0039-6087 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2405526/Portal_hypertension_ L2 - https://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/5881 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -