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Discovering new treatments for Alzheimer's disease by repurposing approved medications.
Curr Top Med Chem 2013; 13(18):2306-27CT

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The greatest risk factor for AD is age and as many countries are experiencing an aging population, the expected rise in AD threatens to have serious medical and socioeconomic impact in the coming decades. The only approved medications for AD are symptomatic and there are no currently available disease modifying treatments. Hence, a disease modifying treatment is desperately needed for AD not only for proper care and management of affected patients, but also to reduce society's socioeconomic burden. Developing novel compounds for any indication is a time, effort, and money consuming endeavor and most treatments never make it to market. Other research and development strategies are needed, especially for the treatment of AD. We provide a review of the current literature in assessing possibilities of repurposing medications currently used for non-AD indications. Many different compounds from many different pharmacological classes have already been studied in an AD context. We provide a "pragmatic drug repurposing score" for each of these compounds based on type of studies conducted, number of possible mechanisms of action, efficacy in AD and other neurodegenerative disease studies, tolerability profile, and their ability to cross the blood brain barrier. The current data suggest several compounds worthy of further study as treatments for AD. Compounds with the highest scores include lithium, minocycline, exenatide, valproic acid, methylene blue, and nicotine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, 9500 Euclid Avenue/U10, Cleveland, OH 44195. applebyb77@gmail.com.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24059463

Citation

Appleby, Brian S., and Jeffrey L. Cummings. "Discovering New Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease By Repurposing Approved Medications." Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 18, 2013, pp. 2306-27.
Appleby BS, Cummings JL. Discovering new treatments for Alzheimer's disease by repurposing approved medications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13(18):2306-27.
Appleby, B. S., & Cummings, J. L. (2013). Discovering new treatments for Alzheimer's disease by repurposing approved medications. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 13(18), pp. 2306-27.
Appleby BS, Cummings JL. Discovering New Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease By Repurposing Approved Medications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13(18):2306-27. PubMed PMID: 24059463.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Discovering new treatments for Alzheimer's disease by repurposing approved medications. AU - Appleby,Brian S, AU - Cummings,Jeffrey L, PY - 2013/07/16/received PY - 2013/07/30/revised PY - 2013/07/30/accepted PY - 2013/9/25/entrez PY - 2013/9/26/pubmed PY - 2014/4/29/medline SP - 2306 EP - 27 JF - Current topics in medicinal chemistry JO - Curr Top Med Chem VL - 13 IS - 18 N2 - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The greatest risk factor for AD is age and as many countries are experiencing an aging population, the expected rise in AD threatens to have serious medical and socioeconomic impact in the coming decades. The only approved medications for AD are symptomatic and there are no currently available disease modifying treatments. Hence, a disease modifying treatment is desperately needed for AD not only for proper care and management of affected patients, but also to reduce society's socioeconomic burden. Developing novel compounds for any indication is a time, effort, and money consuming endeavor and most treatments never make it to market. Other research and development strategies are needed, especially for the treatment of AD. We provide a review of the current literature in assessing possibilities of repurposing medications currently used for non-AD indications. Many different compounds from many different pharmacological classes have already been studied in an AD context. We provide a "pragmatic drug repurposing score" for each of these compounds based on type of studies conducted, number of possible mechanisms of action, efficacy in AD and other neurodegenerative disease studies, tolerability profile, and their ability to cross the blood brain barrier. The current data suggest several compounds worthy of further study as treatments for AD. Compounds with the highest scores include lithium, minocycline, exenatide, valproic acid, methylene blue, and nicotine. SN - 1873-4294 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24059463/Discovering_new_treatments_for_Alzheimer's_disease_by_repurposing_approved_medications_ L2 - http://www.eurekaselect.com/115615/article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -