Seroprevalence and demographic determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 infections among first-time blood donors--United States, 2000-2009.J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 15; 209(4):523-31.JI
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are prevalent at low levels among US blood donors, but recent data on their prevalence is lacking. METHODS. Data on all first-time blood donors in a large network of US blood centers were examined during 2000-2009. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with confirmation by immunofluorescence or recombinant immunoblot. Prevalence rates were calculated, and odds ratios were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
Among 2 047 740 first-time donors, 104 were seropositive for HTLV-1 (prevalence, 5.1 cases/per 100 000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-6.1), and 300 were seropositive for HTLV-2 (prevalence, 14.7 cases/per 100 000; 95% CI, 13.0-16.3). The prevalence was lower than reported in the 1990s but stable from 2000 to 2009. HTLV-1 seropositivity was associated with female sex, older age, and black and Asian race/ethnicity. HTLV-2 seropositivity was associated with female sex, older age, nonwhite race/ethnicity, lower educational level, and residence in the western and southwestern United States.
The HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 prevalences among US blood donors has declined since the early 1990s. A higher prevalence of HTLV-2 in the west and southwest may be attributed to endemic foci among Amerindians.