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Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission.

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1-4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1981 Kraft Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. xjmeng@vt.edu.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Food Microbiology
    Hepatitis E
    Hepatitis E virus
    Humans
    Water Microbiology
    Zoonoses

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24071919

    Citation

    Yugo, Danielle M., and Xiang-Jin Meng. "Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 10, no. 10, 2013, pp. 4507-33.
    Yugo DM, Meng XJ. Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(10):4507-33.
    Yugo, D. M., & Meng, X. J. (2013). Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(10), pp. 4507-33. doi:10.3390/ijerph10104507.
    Yugo DM, Meng XJ. Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Sep 25;10(10):4507-33. PubMed PMID: 24071919.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission. AU - Yugo,Danielle M, AU - Meng,Xiang-Jin, Y1 - 2013/09/25/ PY - 2013/07/02/received PY - 2013/08/20/revised PY - 2013/09/03/accepted PY - 2013/9/28/entrez PY - 2013/9/28/pubmed PY - 2014/4/29/medline SP - 4507 EP - 33 JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 10 IS - 10 N2 - Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1-4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24071919/full_citation L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph10104507 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -