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A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease.

Abstract

Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (ω-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (ω-3 + LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ω-3, or 3) ω-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ω-3 + LA and ω-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ω-3 + LA showed less decline in MMSE (p < 0.01) and IADL (p = 0.01) and the ω-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ω-3 + LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

    , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Activities of Daily Living
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Alzheimer Disease
    Analysis of Variance
    Cognition Disorders
    Double-Blind Method
    F2-Isoprostanes
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Mental Status Schedule
    Middle Aged
    Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
    Pilot Projects
    Thioctic Acid

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24077434

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease. AU - Shinto,Lynne, AU - Quinn,Joseph, AU - Montine,Thomas, AU - Dodge,Hiroko H, AU - Woodward,William, AU - Baldauf-Wagner,Sara, AU - Waichunas,Dana, AU - Bumgarner,Lauren, AU - Bourdette,Dennis, AU - Silbert,Lisa, AU - Kaye,Jeffrey, PY - 2013/10/1/entrez PY - 2013/10/1/pubmed PY - 2014/6/18/medline KW - Alpha-lipoic acid KW - Alzheimer's disease KW - clinical trial KW - omega-3 fatty acids SP - 111 EP - 20 JF - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD JO - J. Alzheimers Dis. VL - 38 IS - 1 N2 - Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (ω-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (ω-3 + LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ω-3, or 3) ω-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ω-3 + LA and ω-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ω-3 + LA showed less decline in MMSE (p < 0.01) and IADL (p = 0.01) and the ω-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ω-3 + LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted. SN - 1875-8908 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24077434/full_citation L2 - http://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&amp;id=doi:10.3233/JAD-130722 ER -