Effect of human glutathione S-transferases on glutathione-dependent inactivation of cytochrome P450-dependent reactive intermediates of diclofenac.Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Nov 18; 26(11):1632-41.CR
Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions due to the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been proposed to be caused by the generation of reactive acyl glucuronides and oxidative metabolites. For the oxidative metabolism of diclofenac by cytochromes P450 at least five different reactive intermediates have been proposed previously based on structural identification of their corresponding GSH-conjugates. In the present study, the ability of four human glutathione S-transferases (hGSTs) to catalyze the GSH-conjugation of the different reactive intermediates formed by P450s was investigated. Addition of pooled human liver cytosol and recombinant hGSTA1-1, hGSTM1-1, and hGSTP1-1 to incubations of diclofenac with human liver microsomes or purified CYP102A1M11 L437N as a model system significantly increased total GSH-conjugation. The strongest increase of total GSH-conjugation was observed by adding hGSTP1-1, whereas hGSTM1-1 and hGSTA1-1 showed lower activity. Addition of hGSTT1-1 only showed a minor effect. When considering the effects of hGSTs on GSH-conjugation of the different quinoneimines of diclofenac, it was found that hGSTP1-1 showed the highest activity in GSH-conjugation of the quinoneimine derived from 5-hydroxydiclofenac (5-OH-DF). hGSTM1-1 showed the highest activity in inactivation of the quinoneimine derived from 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (4'-OH-DF). Separate incubations with 5-OH-DF and 4'-OH-DF as substrates confirmed these results. hGSTs also catalyzed GSH-conjugation of the o-iminemethide formed by oxidative decarboxylation of diclofenac as well as the substitution of one of the chlorine atoms of DF by GSH. hGSTP1-1 showed the highest activity for the formation of these minor GSH-conjugates. These results suggest that hGSTs may play an important role in the inactivation of DF quinoneimines and its minor reactive intermediates especially in stress conditions when tissue levels of GSH are decreased.