Evaluation of renal impairment in dogs after envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus).Vet J. 2013 Dec; 198(3):723-4.VJ
Envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus) causes clinical renal injury in dogs. In this study, serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, total protein and urea were measured in 32 dogs bitten by adders. Urinary creatinine, protein, and retinol binding protein 4 concentrations, and the activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were measured in 32 affected dogs and 23 healthy controls. Clinical assessment was conducted with a grading scale and a renal function score was applied to classify dogs based on laboratory findings. Urinary protein:creatinine, GGT:creatinine and ALP:creatinine ratios appear to be useful in evaluating renal impairment in dogs with adder envenomation. Increasing kidney function score was correlated with increased urinary ALP:creatinine and GGT:creatinine ratios.