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Cetylpyridinium chloride suppresses gene expression associated with halitosis.
Arch Oral Biol. 2013 Nov; 58(11):1686-91.AO

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Halitosis is a common complaint affecting the majority of the population. Mouthrinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) have been used as oral hygiene aids to suppress oral malodor. Although the clinical efficacy of these mouthrinses has been well-documented, the mechanism whereby CPC reduces malodor is less-well-understood. We hypothesized that CPC suppresses expression of the genes (mgl and cdl) and enzymes responsible for methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by oral anaerobes associated with halitosis. In this study, the mgl and cdl expression of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in the presence of CPC was investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We used a microdilution method to determine the growth and production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by P. gingivalis W83 and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 in respective media containing CPC (0.5 μg/mL to 1.5 μg/mL). For metabolic activity, we used an XTT {2,3-bis(2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} reduction assay. We used real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting to evaluate the effect of CPC at sub-MIC levels on mgl and cdl expression at the transcriptional and enzymatic levels.

RESULTS

CPC inhibited the growth of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum at MICs of 3 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, and at MBCs of 6 μg/mL and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Compared with untreated controls, CPC at 1.5 μg/mL suppressed CH3SH production of P. gingivalis by 69.84%±2.88% and H2S production of F. nucleatum by 82.55%±8.36% (p<0.05) without affecting metabolic activity. Inhibition of mgl mRNA (81.58%±20.33%) and protein (39.15%±6.65%) expression in P. gingivalis and inhibition of cdl mRNA (61.76%±13.75%) and protein (64.34%±1.62%) expression in F. nucleatum were also noted (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION

CPC represents an effective agent for halitosis reduction by inhibiting the growth and suppressing the expression of specific genes related to VSC production in anaerobic periodontal pathogens.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; Institute of Stomatological Research, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhong Shan Er Road, Guangzhou, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24112735

Citation

Liu, J, et al. "Cetylpyridinium Chloride Suppresses Gene Expression Associated With Halitosis." Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 58, no. 11, 2013, pp. 1686-91.
Liu J, Ling JQ, Wu CD. Cetylpyridinium chloride suppresses gene expression associated with halitosis. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58(11):1686-91.
Liu, J., Ling, J. Q., & Wu, C. D. (2013). Cetylpyridinium chloride suppresses gene expression associated with halitosis. Archives of Oral Biology, 58(11), 1686-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.08.014
Liu J, Ling JQ, Wu CD. Cetylpyridinium Chloride Suppresses Gene Expression Associated With Halitosis. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58(11):1686-91. PubMed PMID: 24112735.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cetylpyridinium chloride suppresses gene expression associated with halitosis. AU - Liu,J, AU - Ling,J-Q, AU - Wu,C D, Y1 - 2013/09/06/ PY - 2013/05/26/received PY - 2013/08/09/revised PY - 2013/08/27/accepted PY - 2013/10/12/entrez PY - 2013/10/12/pubmed PY - 2014/6/27/medline KW - F. nucleatum KW - Halitosis KW - P. gingivalis KW - Periodontal pathogens SP - 1686 EP - 91 JF - Archives of oral biology JO - Arch Oral Biol VL - 58 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Halitosis is a common complaint affecting the majority of the population. Mouthrinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) have been used as oral hygiene aids to suppress oral malodor. Although the clinical efficacy of these mouthrinses has been well-documented, the mechanism whereby CPC reduces malodor is less-well-understood. We hypothesized that CPC suppresses expression of the genes (mgl and cdl) and enzymes responsible for methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by oral anaerobes associated with halitosis. In this study, the mgl and cdl expression of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in the presence of CPC was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a microdilution method to determine the growth and production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by P. gingivalis W83 and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 in respective media containing CPC (0.5 μg/mL to 1.5 μg/mL). For metabolic activity, we used an XTT {2,3-bis(2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} reduction assay. We used real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting to evaluate the effect of CPC at sub-MIC levels on mgl and cdl expression at the transcriptional and enzymatic levels. RESULTS: CPC inhibited the growth of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum at MICs of 3 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, and at MBCs of 6 μg/mL and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Compared with untreated controls, CPC at 1.5 μg/mL suppressed CH3SH production of P. gingivalis by 69.84%±2.88% and H2S production of F. nucleatum by 82.55%±8.36% (p<0.05) without affecting metabolic activity. Inhibition of mgl mRNA (81.58%±20.33%) and protein (39.15%±6.65%) expression in P. gingivalis and inhibition of cdl mRNA (61.76%±13.75%) and protein (64.34%±1.62%) expression in F. nucleatum were also noted (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: CPC represents an effective agent for halitosis reduction by inhibiting the growth and suppressing the expression of specific genes related to VSC production in anaerobic periodontal pathogens. SN - 1879-1506 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24112735/Cetylpyridinium_chloride_suppresses_gene_expression_associated_with_halitosis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003-9969(13)00290-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -