Clinical analysis of the characterization of magnetic resonance imaging in 102 cases of refractory haematospermia.Andrology. 2013 Nov; 1(6):948-56.A
To analyze the pathogenesis of persistent and refractory haematospermia and to evaluate the aetiological diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for this type of haematospermia. Clinical data from 102 patients with persistent and refractory haematospermia was retrospectively analysed. Data collected included history, symptoms, as well as ultrasound and MRI of the morphological features of the bilateral seminal vesicles (SV) and ejaculatory duct (ED) areas. Criteria for inclusion were haematospermia symptoms that occurred more than six times, that lasted more than 6 months, and that did not improve after >1 month of conservative treatment. Patients underwent seminal vesiculoscopy with a post-surgery follow-up of 3-48 months [average (18.1 ± 10.3) months]. Of the 102 patients that underwent MRI examination, data from 88 patients (86.3%) showed typical and characteristic changes in the ED area, including the signal intensity changes in 60 (58.8%), SV volume changes in 32(31.4%), the formation of cysts such as prostatic utricular cysts in 27 (26.5%), Müllerian cysts in 4 (3.9%), ED cysts in 5 (4.9%) and a SV cyst in 1(1.0%). The MRI findings were confirmed by seminal vesiculoscopy and all patients received appropriate treatment. In 14 patients (13.7%), no obvious abnormal changes were observed with MRIs, however, these patients were diagnosed and successfully managed using seminal vesiculoscopy. Some degrees of ED obstruction was usually found during surgery. The symptoms of haematospermia disappeared 1-2 months after surgery in all patients. Two patients had a recurrence of haematospermia, underwent the same treatment, and recovered during the follow-up period. The aetiology of the most cases of the refractory haematospermia can be distinguished using the three-dimensional MRI. Typical abnormalities observed on MR images are signal intensity, SV volume changes and cyst formation. MRI has significant etiological diagnostic value and provides reliable information for the subsequent treatment of patients with persistent and refractory haematospermia.